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Bergamo® II Series Multiphoton Microscopes

Bergamo® II Series Multiphoton Microscopes

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Sam Rubin
Sam Rubin
Imaging Systems General Manager

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Thorlabs Japan

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Thorlabs China

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Imaging Systems Demo Rooms

To ensure our customers choose the best imaging system for their needs, Thorlabs' operates showrooms at a number of locations worldwide. 

Click on the locations to the right for contact information and available demo systems.

Two Scientists Using a Bergamo II Microscope
Try Our Microscopes in Person

The Bergamo® II Series is Thorlabs' platform for multiphoton microscopy. Following the principle that the microscope should conform to the specimen, rather than the other way around, we created a completely modular imaging platform that adapts to a wide range of experimental requirements and can be easily upgraded as experimental needs evolve.

Options at a Glance

Laser Scanning

  • 8 kHz and 12 kHz Resonant-Galvo-Galvo and Galvo-Resonant Scanners for High-Speed Imaging
  • Galvo-Galvo Scanners for User-Defined ROI Shapes and Photostimulation Patterns
  • Spatial Light Modulator for Simultaneous Multi-Point Targeting
  • Super Broadband Scan Optics Optimized for:
    • Photoactivation / Uncaging
    • Two-Photon Imaging
    • Three-Photon Imaging
  • Co-Registered Confocal Imaging

Microscope Body

  • Rotating Bodies (See Video to the Right)
    • 5" of Coarse Vertical Motion
    • -5° to +95° or -50° to +50° Rotation Around the Sample (-45° to +45° Only with SLM)
    • 2" of Fine XY Motion
    • 1" of Fine Z Motion
    • X, Y, and Z Rotate with Objective
  • Upright Bodies
    • Fine Z or Fine XYZ Motion

Signal Detection

  • Up to Four Simultaneous Detection Channels
  • Thermoelectrically Cooled or Large-Angle Non-Cooled GaAsP and Multialkali PMTs
  • 8°, 10°, or 14° Collection Optics in Epi Direction (for Ø20 mm Entrance Pupil)
  • 13° in Transmission Direction
  • Mechanical Shutters Available for Photostimulation
  • Option for Two Forward-Direction Detection Channels
  • Easy-to-Exchange Magnetic Filter Holders

Transmitted Light Imaging

  • Dodt Gradient Contrast (Widefield and Laser Scanned)
  • DIC (Widefield and Laser Scanned)
  • Illumination Modules are Easily Removed for In Vivo Experiments
  • Visible and NIR LED Illumination
  • Available for Rotating and Upright Bodies

Volume Imaging Using Bessel Beams

  • 3D Video-Rate for Volumetric Functional Imaging
  • Enhanced Temporal Resolution Adequate for Studying Internal Systems at Cellular Lateral Resolution In Vivo
  • Want to Learn More? Press Release

Innovation through Collaboration

Five-Axis Movement of Rotating Bergamo Microscopes


The features of Bergamo® II listed below reflect our focus on developing cutting-edge capabilities without compromising usability. Many of these features can also be added to existing Thorlabs microscope systems. For more information, please see the Retrofits tab.

Laser Scanning, Widefield Imaging, and Transmitted Light Imaging
Scan Paths Resonant-Galvo-Galvo
  • 8 kHz Scanner: Image at 2 fps (4096 x 4096 Pixels), 30 fps (512 x 512 Pixels), or
    400 fps (512 x 32 Pixels)
  • 12 kHz Scanner: Image at 45 fps (512 x 512 Pixels) or 600 fps (512 x 32 Pixels)
  • 8 kHz Scanner: Image at 2 fps (4096 x 4096 Pixels), 30 fps (512 x 512 Pixels), or
    400 fps (512 x 32 Pixels)
  • 12 kHz Scanner: Image at 45 fps (512 x 512 Pixels) or 600 fps (512 x 32 Pixels)
  • User-Defined Scan Geometries: Squares, Rectangles, Circles, Ellipses, Lines, and Polylines
  • Capture Weak Signals with Long Dwell Time Integration
  • Consistent Dwell Times Across Field of View
  • 48 fps at 512 x 32 Pixels and 70 fps at 32 x 32 Pixels
Spatial Light Modulator
  • Simultaneous Multi-Site Photostimulation using Holographic Beam Control
  • Entirely Controlled Through ThorImage®LS Software
  • Precise Z-Axis Control of Photoexcited Locations
Widefield Viewing
  • Compatible with Thorlabs or Third-Party C-Mount-Threaded Scientific Cameras
  • Locate Areas of Interest without Unnecessary Laser Excitation
  • Single-Filter-Cube or Six-Filter-Turret Epi-Illuminator Modules
  • Visualize Samples with Fluorescence or Reflected Light
  • Variety of Available Sources for Brightfield Illumination
Dodt Gradient Contrast and DIC Modules
  • User-Removable Modules Convert Microscope Between In Vivo and Slice Imaging
  • Widefield Imaging or Laser Scanning
  • Dodt Gradient Contrast: View Features in Tissue Slices
  • DIC: View Features in Thinner, Transparent Samples
Optical Performance
PMT Configuration
  • Choice of Signal Collection Angles to Accommodate Different Sample Depths along Epi Path
    • 8° (For Two PMTs)a
    • 10° (For up to Four PMTs)a
    • 14° (For Two PMTs)a
  • Option for Highly Sensitive Forward Fluorescence Detection Channels along Transmitted Path
    • 13° (For up to Two PMTs)a
  • GaAsP and Multialkali PMTs Available
  • All PMTs Available with or without Mechanical Shutters for Photoactivation Experiments
  • Angles Quoted for an Objective with a Ø20 mm Entrance Pupil
Minimal Distance Between Objective
and First Collecting Lens
  • Large Collection Angle for Multiphoton Fluorescence Emission
  • Increased Collection Efficiency
  • Maintain Laser Alignment and Optical Performance over Microscope's Entire Travel Range
Scan Paths Designed In-House
  • Super Broadband Correction Range of 450 - 1100 nm, 680 - 1600 nm, or 900 - 1900 nm
  • Optimized for Photostimulation, Two-Photon Imaging, or Three-Photon Imaging
  • Specifically Designed to Match the Low-Magnification, High-NA Objectives Popularly Used in Multiphoton Microscopy
  • Take Full Advantage of the Latest Widely Tunable Ti:Sapphire and OPO Systems
  • Fill up to a Ø20 mm Back Aperture Objective
  • Up to F.N. 20
Day-to-Day Usage
Several Software Packages
  • ThorImage®LS: Our Internally Developed, Open-Source Solution
  • Full SDK for LabVIEW and C++ Available Upon Request
  • Compatible with ScanImage
Touchscreen Controller
  • Touchscreen Shows Current Position of All Axes
  • Tap to Save and Retrieve Two Positions in Space
Easy-to-Reach Emission Filters and Dichroic Holders
  • Filters are Accessed from the Front of the Microscope and Take Less than 5 Minutes to Exchange
Input and Output Triggers
  • Use Electrical Signals to Synchronize All Your Equipment
  • Input Triggers Can Start a Single Series or an Indefinite Series
  • Output Triggers Can be Sent at the Beginning of a Frame or Line
  • High-Bandwidth Signal Integration with Electrophysiology
Large User-Adjustable Volume Underneath Objective
  • Accommodates Large Preps and Setups
  • Approach Angles Around Objective are Not Restricted
  • Rotating Bodies have 5" (12.7 cm) of Elevator Travel for Easily Adapting the Microscope for Differently Sized Experimental Setups
≥90° Rotation of the Focal Plane
(Rotating Bodies Only)
  • Image Different Sections of the Brain without Having to Move Your Specimen or Refocus the Objective
  • Rotation Angles:
    • -5° to +95° or -50° to +50° for Microscopes without SLM
    • -45° to +45° for Microscopes with SLM
Beam Conditioning Modules
Pockels Cells
  • Edge and Fly-Back Blanking to Minimize Sample Photobleaching
  • Fast (1 MHz) and Slow (250 kHz) Masking for ROIs
  • Customize Laser Power at Each Slice Using Software Control
Variable Attenuator
  • Manual and Computer Control of Laser Power in Systems Without a Pockels Cell
  • Improves Pockels Cell Performance
  • One-Click Shutter
Variable Beam Expander
  • 1X - 3X Beam Diameter Modulation into the Objective Back Aperture Using Software Control
Beam Stabilizer
  • Maintain Stable Beam Pointing During Laser Excitation, Laser Wavelength Switching, and Temporal Drift
Volume Imaging Using Bessel Beams
  • 3D Video-Rate for Volumetric Functional Imaging
  • Enhanced Temporal Resolution Adequate for Studying Internal Systems at Cellular Lateral Resolution In Vivo
  • Press Release
Sample Holders
Rigid Stands for Slides, Recording Chambers, or Platforms
  • Minimal Footprint Conserves Space Around Objective and the Microscope
  • Slim Profile Leaves Room for Dodt or DIC Imaging Modules
  • Excellent Long-Term Stability
  • Easily Rotate Samples Into and Out of the Beam Path
XY Platforms for Micromanipulators
  • Large Working Space that Surrounds the Objective on Three Sides
  • Ideal for Setups Where the Sample and Apparatus Need to Move in Unison, Such as Patch Clamping
  • 2" Travel in X and Y; 0.5 µm Encoder Resolution
Gibraltar Platform
  • Large, Stable Working Space for Sample and Supplementary Equipment
  • Honeycomb Breadboard for Vibration Stability
  • Open Design Allows for Unrestricted Instrument Operation
Thorlabs Support
Fully Designed and Manufactured In-House
  • Engineers Work Under One Roof to Lower Your Costs and Create Seamless Solutions
  • Expertise in Every System Component
Modular System Construction
  • As Your Experimental Needs Evolve, Upgrade Your Microscope Without Sacrificing Existing Capabilities
Professional Installation
  • Thorlabs Technician Visits Your Lab to Assemble, Test, and Demonstrate Use of Your Microscope
Quick Support
  • Thorlabs Technicians and Application Specialists Available for Videoconferencing
  • Communicate with Our Support Staff Faster than an Engineer Could Travel to Your Location
  • Thorlabs Will Ship You a Camera with a Microphone to Facilitate the Conversation
  • With Permission, Thorlabs Will Remote Desktop in to Address Software Issues

Thorlabs recognizes that each imaging application has unique requirements.
If you have any feedback, questions, or need a quotation, please use our
multiphoton microscopy contact form or call (703) 651-1700.

Bergamo® II Modules

Thorlabs Bergamo® II microscopes are modular systems that can be customized in the design process to meet the exact needs of the experiment. The modules listed below are displayed in a variety of pre-built examples found on our Configurations tab to help provide a starting point for your design. 

BergamoII Rotating Body

Galvo-Resonant Scanners, Galvo-Galvo Scanners, and Spatial Light Modulators

Bergamo® II microscopes can be configured with one or two co-registered scan paths to propagate, condition, and direct an input laser beam. Each path can utilize a resonant-galvo-galvo scanner, galvo-resonant scanner, galvo-galvo scanner, and/or a spatial light modulator (SLM). These choices allow the user to optimize each experiment as needed for high frame rates, high sensitivity, and/or targeted exposure of the regions of interest.

Resonant-Galvo-Galvo Scanners for Random Access Scanning
Thorlabs offers 8 kHz and 12 kHz resonant-galvo-galvo (RGG) scanners. These scanners enable multiple areas within a single FOV to be imaged at high speed in quick succession. Our 8 kHz scanners utilize the entire field of view and offer a maximum frame rate of 400 fps, while our 12 kHz scanners provide an increased frame rate of 600 fps.

Galvo-Resonant Scanners for High-Speed Imaging
Thorlabs offers 8 kHz and 12 kHz galvo-resonant scanners. Our 8 kHz scanners utilize the entire field of view and offer a maximum frame rate of 400 fps, while our 12 kHz scanners provide an increased frame rate of 600 fps.

Galvo-Galvo Scanners for User-Defined ROI Shapes
Galvo-galvo scanners support user-drawn scan geometries (lines, polylines, squares, and rectangles) and also support custom photoactivation patterns (circles, ellipses, polygons, and points). They offer consistent pixel dwell times for better signal integration and image uniformity.

Spatial Light Modulator for Simultaneous Targeting
Unlike scanners, which physically move from point to point, spatial light modulators (SLMs) use holography to diffract the beam and shape it in a user-defined pattern. This includes general beam shaping as well as the creation of multiple focal points at the FOV; the latter allows multiple sites in a sample to be photoexcited simultaneously.

Scan Paths of Example Configurations
Multi-Target Photoactivation (Rotating) Path 1: Galvo-Resonant
Path 2: SLM
B242: Two- and Three-Photon Imaging (Rotating) Path 1: Galvo-Resonant
Path 2: Galvo-Galvo
B251: Random Access Scanning (Rotating) Resonant-Galvo-Galvo
In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging (Rotating) Galvo-Resonant
Dual-Path Random Access Scanning (XYZ) Path 1: Resonant-Galvo-Galvo
Path 2: Galvo-Galvo
Dual-Path Confocal Imaging (XYZ) Path 1: Galvo-Resonant
Path 2: Galvo-Galvo
Simple Imaging (XYZ) Galvo-Resonant
Video and High-Speed Imaging (Z-Only) Galvo-Galvo
Simple Imaging (Z-Only) Galvo-Galvo


Figure 3. Wavelength Switching Using Tiberius Ti:Sapphire Laser Shown at 1/16th Actual Speed
Fast Switching
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Figure 2. Fast Switching between the optimal excitation wavelengths of 750 nm and 835 nm provides the high contrast seen in this composite image. The two-channel set was collected at an imaging rate of 7 fps.
Fast Switching
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Figure 1.  The above image was acquired using single-wavelength excitation at 788 nm, while the optimum excitation wavelengths for the two tags are 750 nm and 850 nm.

Fast Switching Using a
Tunable Femtosecond Laser

With an industry-leading tuning speed of up to 4000 nm/s and a wide 720 to 1060 nm tuning range, the Tiberius® Ti:Sapphire Femtosecond Laser is ideal for fast sequential imaging in multiphoton microscopy applications. 

A 25 µm thick sagittal section of an adult rat brain is shown in the images and video to the right. The red channel corresponds to fluorescence from chick anti-neurofilament that is optimally excited at 835 nm, while the green channel corresponds to fluorescence from mouse anti-GFAP that is optimally excited at 750 nm.

Figure 1 shows fluorescence from single-wavelength excitation at 788 nm, which sub-optimally excites the two tags simultaneously. Figure 2 is a composite image of the fluorescence produced by a two-color excitation image sequence acquired at 7 fps where the excitation wavelength was rapidly tuned between 750 and 835 nm. The video in Figure 3 shows the fast-switching used to create the composite image in Figure 2 at 1/16th of the actual speed. When compared to single-wavelength excitation at 788 nm with the same intensity, fast switching offers much higher image contrast as it provides optimal excitation of both fluorophores.

This immunofluorescence sample was prepared by Lynne Holtzclaw of the NICHD Microscopy and Imaging Core Facility, a part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD.


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Figure 2. Close-Up of a Gaussian Beam

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Figure 1. Close-Up of a Bessel Beam

Volume Imaging Technique Using Bessel Beams

Thorlabs is excited to offer a new ultra-fast imaging technique that uses a bessel beam to provide video-rate volumetric functional imaging of neuronal pathways and interactions in vivo. These unique beams are non-diffractive and self-healing, which allows them to maintain a tight focus and even reform as they pass through tissue. This technique will be offered for Thorlabs' Bergamo II multiphoton microscopes and Thorlabs' Multiphoton Mesoscope

The images to the right depict a bessel beam and a gaussian beam, respectively. As you can see in the images, the gaussian beam has a singular point of focus that progressively becomes weaker as it diverges from the central point, whereas the bessel beam has a beam annulus that maintains its focus.

To read the press release about this new technique, click here.


BergamoII Rotating Body
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Rotating Bergamo II systems are outfitted with multi-joint articulating periscopes. This periscope's design offers the enhanced flexibility needed to allow the entire scanning system to be tilted with respect to the sample.
BergamoII Non-Rotating Body
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Upright Bergamo II systems are equipped with periscopes that permit the microscope's full travel range in X, Y, and Z to be used without compromising the optical performance.


Most lasers used in multiphoton microscopy are delivered by a free-space beam. The Bergamo II's ability to translate the objective around the focal plane in up to four axes (X, Y, Z, and θ) also requires the beam path to translate along the same axes while maintaining alignment. Bergamo II systems overcome this engineering challenge using multi-jointed periscopes.

Configurations with Articulating Periscopes
B243: Multi-Target Photoactivation (Rotating)
Two- and Three-Photon Imaging (Rotating)
B251: Random Access Scanning (Rotating)
B241: In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging (Rotating)
Configurations with Fixed Periscopes
B252: Dual-Path Random Access Scanning (XYZ)
Dual-Path Confocal Imaging (XYZ)
B231: Simple Imaging (XYZ)
Video and High-Speed Imaging (Z-Only)
Simple Imaging (Z-Only)


BergamoII Filter Exchange
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Emission filters and dichroic cubes are held behind magnetically sealed doors on the front of the PMT detection module.
Collection Optics of Example Configurationsa
Multi-Target Photoactivation (Rotating) Epi: 10°
B242: Two- and Three-Photon Imaging (Rotating) Epi: 14°
B251: Random Access Scanning (Rotating) Epi: 14°
B241: In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging (Rotating) Epi: 14°
B252: Dual-Path Random Access Scanning (XYZ) Epi: 14°
Transmitted: 13°
B262: Dual-Path Confocal Imaging (XYZ) Epi: 14°
B231: Simple Imaging (XYZ) Epi: 8°
Transmitted: 13°
B211: Video and High-Speed Imaging (Z-Only) Epi: 
B201: Simple Imaging (Z-Only) Epi: 

Super Broadband Scan Optics

Bergamo II microscopes feature proprietary scan optics that are optimized and corrected for excitation wavelengths within the 450 - 1100 nm, 680 - 1600 nm, or 900 - 1900 nm wavelength range, ideal for photostimulation, two-photon imaging, and three-photon imaging, respectively. These broad ranges, extending from the visible well into the near infrared, were chosen to support the latest widely tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers and OPO systems, as well as dual-output lasers such as the Chameleon Discovery.

Our optics take full advantage of the optical designs used in the low-magnification, high-numerical-aperture objectives by filling the back aperture of the objective up to Ø20 mm. This creates an exceptional scan area that lets you find a region of interest more quickly or simply image more cells at once.

Large-Angle Signal Collection Optics

Deriving the most signal from limited photons is the fundamental goal of any detection system. By positioning the PMTs immediately after the objective (a "non-descanned" geometry), light that is scattered by the sample, which therefore appears to originate outside the objective's field of view, still strikes the PMTs and adds to the collected signal. This is a benefit unique to multiphoton microscopy. Collecting beyond the objective's design field of view greatly enhances overall detection efficiency when imaging deep in tissue.

In the epi direction, we offer signal collection anglesa of 8°, 10°, or 14°, while in the transmitted direction, we offer a signal collection anglea of 13°. Our collection modules can optionally be outfitted with mechanical shutters for photoactivation experiments.

Easy-to-Reach Emission Filters and Dichroic Holders

Bergamo II systems are fully compatible with industry-standard fluorescence filter sets that include Ø25 mm fluorescence filters and 25 mm x 36 mm dichroic mirrors. Unlike competing designs, Thorlabs' detector modules have magnetic holders that make it simple and quick to exchange filters for different measurements.

We also offer detection modules for large-area Ø32 mm fluorescence filters and 32 mm x 42 mm dichroics, which support greater collection angles for increased signal.

Detectors in Epi and Transmitted Directions

We employ high-sensitivity GaAsP PMTs in our multiphoton systems, which can offer high quantum efficiency, aiding in imaging weakly fluorescent or highly photosensitive samples. Our PMTs can either be thermoelectrically cooled for improved sensitivity toward weak signals or non-cooled for a smaller package size and greater numerical aperture. Multialkali PMTs are also available.

All Bergamo® II microscopes can be equipped with either two or four detection channels in the epi direction, and/or two detection channels in the forward direction. The user can configure the forward-direction channels to detect the same fluorescent tags as the epi-direction PMTs, raising the microscope's sensitivity toward thin, weakly fluorescent specimens.

A maximum of four channels can be controlled by the software at a given time.

  • Angles Quoted for an Objective with a Ø20 mm Entrance PupilXXX


Multi-Axis Controller with Touchscreen

This controller is specifically designed for rotating Bergamo II microscope bodies. It uses knobs to control up to five motorized axes. On rotating systems, a rocker switch changes between fine objective focusing and translation of the elevator base. Each axis can be disabled on an individual basis in order to maintain a location along the desired direction.

The integrated touchscreen lets two spatial locations be saved and retrieved locally. Up to eight spatial locations can be saved on the computer running ThorImage®LS. The touchscreen also reads out the position of every motor.



Bergamo II microscopes accept infinity-corrected objectives with M34 x 1.0, M32 x 0.75, M25 x 0.75, or RMS threads. Together, these options encompass the majority of low-magnification, high-NA objectives used in multiphoton microscopy. With a large field number of 20, our scan optics completely utilize the optical designs of these specialized objectives, offering enhanced light-gathering ability compared to competing microscopes using the same objectives.


Rigid Stand Sample Holders

Thorlabs' Rigid Stands are rotatable, lockable, low-profile platforms for mounting slides, recording chambers, our Z-axis piezo stages, and custom experimental apparatuses. Each fixture is supported by a solid Ø1.5" stainless steel post for passive vibrational damping, which is in turn held to the workstation by the red post holder.

A locking collar maintains the height of the platform, allowing it to easily rotate into and out of the optical path, and a quick-release mechanism holds the post in place once the desired position is achieved.


Quantulux and 1.4 Megapixel Scientific Cameras
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A Quantulux sCMOS Camera and 1.4 Megapixel Scientific Camera

Scientific Cameras

Our low-noise, scientific-grade CCD, sCMOS, and CMOS cameras were designed for full compatibility with Thorlabs’ multiphoton microscopy systems. Useful for widefield and fluorescence microscopy, they are capable of visualizing in vitro and in vivo samples using reflected light and fluorescence emission. They work in conjunction with the epi-fluorescence module to help locate fiducial markers, and they also enable imaging modalities that do not require laser exposure.

Thorlabs' cameras are driven by our internally developed ThorCam software package. CCD cameras are available in 1.4 MP, 4 MP, 8 MP, and fast-frame-rate versions, the sCMOS camera is available with a 2.1 MP sensor, and our CMOS cameras are available with a 5 MP sensor. Generally speaking, cameras with lower resolution offer higher maximum frame rates. These cameras also feature a separate auxiliary port that permits the image acquisition to be driven by an external electrical trigger signal.

Bergamo® II microscopes are also directly compatible with any camera using industry-standard C-mount or CS-mount threads.


Bergamo II with Dodt Contrast
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Trans-Illumination Module, Motorized Condenser Stage, and
Rigid Stand Sample Holder Underneath the Objective

User-Installable Dodt Contrast and DIC Imaging Modules

The modular construction of the Bergamo® II makes it exceptionally easy for the user to convert the microscope between in vitro and in vivo applications. Our user-installable trans-illumination modules for Dodt contrast, laser-scanned Dodt contrast, and differential interference contrast (DIC) take less than 5 minutes to attach or remove from the microscope body. These modules are available for both rotating and upright bodies.

Each option is paired with our basic 3-axis controller, which optimizes the illumination conditions by translating our motorized condenser stage over a 1" range. This versatile design is compatible with air and high-NA oil immersion condensers designed by Nikon.

To complement these modules, we manufacture slim-profile rigid stand sample holders that are ideal for positioning slides between the transmitted light module and the objective.

Configurations with Trans-Illumination Module
Dual-Path Random Access Scanning (XYZ)
B231: Simple Imaging (XYZ)

Thorlabs recognizes that each imaging application has unique requirements.
If you have any feedback, questions, or need a quotation, please use our
multiphoton microscopy contact form or call (703) 651-1700.

Example Configurations

Explore the details of example Bergamo II rotating, XYZ, and Z-axis system configurations by clicking on the expandable sections below. The modular nature of our multiphoton microscopy platform allows us to modify configurations to meet individual experimental needs or adjust the functionality of a microscope after installation; more information on modules featured in the systems below can be found on the Modules tab.

Configuration System Highlights
Rotating Body
Configuration B243:
Multi-Target Photoactivation
Key Features Suggested Applications
  • Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) in Secondary Beam Path, Providing Holographic, All-Optical Multi-Target Stimulation
  • Large Throat Depth for In Vivo Animal Studies
  • Separate Lasers for Multiphoton Imaging and Photoactivation
  • Galvo-Resonant Scanning for High-Speed Image Acquisition
  • Synapses and Circuits
  • Ion Channel, Transporters and Neurotransmitter Reporters
  • Functional Imaging
  • Neurological Disorders
Configuration B242:
Two- and Three-Photon Imaging
Key Features Suggested Applications
  • Dual-Channel Paths for Simultaneous 2P and 3P Imaging, or 3P Imaging with Photoactivation
  • Beam Conditioning with Variable Beam Expander, Pockels Cell, and Variable Attenuator
  • Simultaneous 2P or 3P Imaging with Widefield
  • Large Working Space and Rotating Microscope Body for In Vivo Large Animal Studies
  • Structural Neurobiology
  • Neurological Disorders
Configuration B251:
Random Access Scanning
Key Features Suggested Applications
  • Resonant-Galvo-Galvo Scanner for High-Resolution, Fast Acquisition of Multiple Regions within a Single FOV
  • Integrate with Soundbox for Sound-Sensitive Experiments
  • Edge Blanking with Fast Pockels Cell
  • Simultaneous Multi-Channel Epi-Fluorescence
  • Tiberius fs Ti:Sapphire Tunable Laser
  • Synapses and Circuits
  • Ion Channel, Transporters and Neurotransmitter Reporters
  • Functional Imaging
  • Neurological Disorders
Configuration B241:
In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging
Key Features Suggested Applications
  • Large Working Space with Fully Rotatable Microscope
  • Integrate with Soundbox for Sound-Sensitive Experiments
  • Galvo-Resonant Scanner for High-Speed Imaging
  • Edge Blanking with Fast or Standard Pockels Cell
  • Simultaneous Multi-Channel Epi-Fluorescence
  • Tiberius® fs Ti:Sapphire Tunable Laser
  • Auditory Functional Imaging
Upright XYZ Body
Configuration B252:
Dual-Path Random Access Scanning
Key Features Suggested Applications
  • Light-Tight Enclosure for Laser Conditioning Modules and Components
  • Resonant-Galvo-Galvo Scanner for High-Speed, High-Resolution Imaging of Multiple FOVs
  • PMT Options for Scanned or De-Scanned Multiphoton Detection
  • Gibraltar Breadboard Platform for Samples and Supplementary Equipment
  • Dual-Output Spectra Physics InSight Laser
  • High-Speed, High-Resolution Volumetric Imaging Using Bessel Beams (Optional)
  • Ion Channel, Transporters, and Neurotransmitter Reporters
  • Ex Vivo Neurobiological Studies
  • Electrophysiology and Patch-Clamp Recordings
  • In Vivo Neurobiological Studies using Bessel Beam Volumetric Imaging Technique (Optional)
Configuration B262:
Dual-Path with
Confocal Imaging
Key Features Suggested Applications
  • Dual-Paths for Multiphoton Imaging with
    Confocal Imaging or Photoactivation
  • Galvo-Resonant Scanner for High-Speed Imaging and Galvo-Galvo Scanner for Custom Geometric Scans
  • Four-Channel Confocal Fiber Laser and Tiberius® fs Ti:Sapphire Tunable Laser
  • Structural Neurobiology
  • Ion Channel, Transporters, and Neurotransmitter Reporters
  • Neural Development and Plasticity
  • Functional Imaging
Configuration B231:
Simple XYZ Imaging
Key Features Suggested Applications
  • High-Speed Galvo-Resonant Scanning
  • High-Sensitivity GaAsP PMT
  • Free-Space Photodetector
  • Removable Transmitted Light Module with Laser Scanning Dodt Functionality
  • Epi-Fluorescence with Quantalux™ sCMOS Camera
  • Tiberius fs Ti:Sapphire Tunable Laser
  • Functional Imaging
  • Drug Discovery
  • Fixed Stage Experiments
Upright Z-Axis Body
Configuration B211:
Video and High-Speed Imaging
Key Features Suggested Applications
  • High-Speed Galvo-Resonant Scanning
  • Pockels Cell and Motorized Variable Attenuator for Remote Laser Adjustment
  • 2-Channel PMT Detection
  • Small Footprint with Large Throat Depth
  • Tiberius fs Ti:Sapphire Tunable Laser
  • Ion Channel, Transporters, and Neurotransmitter Reporters
Configuration B201:
Simple Z-Axis Imaging
Key Features Suggested Applications
  • Galvo-Galvo Scanning
  • 2-Channel Detection with High-Sensitivity GaAsP PMTs
  • Small Footprint with Large Throat Depth
  • 930 nm Menlo YLMO Pulsed Laser
  • Neurogenetics
  • Neural Development and Plasticity (Drosophila)
  • Cell Biology of Neurons, Muscles, and Glia

Thorlabs recognizes that each imaging application has unique requirements.
If you have any feedback, questions, or need a quotation, please use our
multiphoton microscopy contact form or call (703) 651-1700.

Sam Rubin
Sam Rubin
Imaging Systems General Manager

Need a Quote?

Contact Me
Trans-Illumination Path Add-On for Rotating Bergamo Systems
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Trans-Illumination Add-On for Rotating Bergamo II Systems

Retrofit Options for Existing Multiphoton Systems

  • Upgrades to the Functionality of Existing Microscope Infrastructure and Components
  • Add-On Components to Increase Capabilities

Thorlabs' modular design enables our microscopes to continually evolve with experimental needs. Customers with previous model microscopes and product lines for multiphoton microscopy have the flexibility to update their infrustructure or add to their existing components as their microscopy needs change. See the expandable tables below for options available for each of our multiphoton system lines, and contact us for additional information about incorporating an upgrade or add-on into your system.

Please note that certain upgrades and add-ons require an on-site visit by one of our specialists for installation.

Bergamo II Compatible Upgrades and Add-Ons
Bergamo I (B-Scope) Compatible Upgrades and Add-Ons
Acerra (A-Scope) Compatible Upgrades and Add-Ons

Images Taken Using Bergamo® Systems

Selected Publications Using Thorlabs' Imaging Systems



Gillet SN, Kato HK, Justen MA, Lai M, and Isaacson JS. "Fear Learning Regulates Cortical Sensory Representations by Suppressing Habituation." Front. Neural Circuits. 2018 Jan 10; 11: 112.



Klapoetke NC, Nern A, Peek MY, Rogers EM, Breads P, Rubin GM, Reiser MB, and Card GM. "Ultra-selective looming detection from radial motion opponency." Nature Neuroscience. 2017 Nov 09; 551: 237-241.

Lu R, Sun W, Liang Y, Kerlin A, Bierfeld J, Seelig JD, Wilson DE, Scholl B, Mohar B, Tanimoto M, Koyama M, Fitzpatrick D, Orger MB, and Ji N. "Video-rate volumetric functional imaging of the brain at synaptic resolution." Nature Neuroscience. 2017 Feb 27; 20: 620-628.

Scholl B, Wilson DE, and Fitzpatrick D. "Local order within global disorder: synaptic architecture of visual space." Neuron. 2017 Dec 6; 95 (5): 1127-1138.

Kato HK, Asinof SK, and Isaacson JS. "Network-level control of frequency tuning in auditory cortex." Neuron. 2017 Jul 19; 95 (2): 412-423.



Mongeon R, Venkatachalam V, and Yellen G. "Cytosolic NADH-NAD+ Redox Visualized in Brain Slices by Two-Photon Fluorescence Lifetime Biosensor Imaging." Antioxid Redox Signal. 2016 Oct 1; 25 (10): 553-563.

Pachitariu M, Stringer C, Schröder S, Dipoppa M, Rossi LF, Carandini M, and Harris KD. "Suite2p: beyond 10,000 neurons with standard two-photon microscopy." bioRxiv. 2016 Jun 30; 061507.

Dipoppa M, Ranson A, Krumin M, Pachitariu M, Carandini M, and Harris KD. "Vision and locomotion shape the interactions between neuron types in mouse visual cortex." bioRxiv. 2016 Jun 11; 058396.

Rose T, Jaepel J, Hübener M, and Bonhoeffer T. "Cell-specific restoration of stimulus preference after monocular deprivation in the visual cortex." Science. 2016 Jun 10; 352 (6291): 1319–22.

Strobl MJ, Freeman D, Patel J, Poulsen R, Wendler CC, Rivkees SA, and Coleman JE. "Opposing Effects of Maternal Hypo- and Hyperthyroidism on the Stability of Thalamocortical Synapses in the Visual Cortex of Adult Offspring." Cereb Cortex. 2016 May 26; pii: bhw096 (epub ahead of print).

Lee KS, Huang X, and Fitzpatrick D. "Topology of ON and OFF inputs in visual cortex enables an invariant columnar architecture." Nature. 2016 May 5; 533 (7601): 90-4.

Monai H, Ohkura M, Tanaka M, Oe Y, Konno A, Hirai H, Mikoshiba K, Itohara S, Nakai J, Iwai Y, and Hirase H. "Calcium imaginq reveals glial involvement in transcranial direct current stimulation-induced plasticity in mouse brain." Nat Comm. 2016 Mar 22; 7 (11100): 1-10.

Ganmor E, Krumin M, Rossi LF, Carandini M, and Simoncelli EP. "Direct Estimation of Firing Rates from Calcium Imaging Data." arXiv. 2016 Jan 4; 1601.00364 (q-bio.NC): 1-34.



Roth MM, Dahmen JC, Muir DR, Imhof F, Martini FJ, and Hofer SB. "Thalamic nuclei convey diverse contextual information to layer 1 of visual cortex." Nat Neurosci. 2015 Dec 21; 19 (2): 299-307.

Barnstedt O, Keating P, Weissenberger Y, King AJ, and Dahmen JC. "Functional Microarchitecture of the Mouse Dorsal Inferior Colliculus Revealed through In Vivo Two-Photon Calcium Imaging." J Neurosci. 2015 Aug 5; 35 (31): 10927-39.

Chen SX, Kim AN, Peters AJ, and Komiyama T. "Subtype-specific plasticity of inhibitory circuits in motor cortex during motor learning." Nat Neurosci. 2015 Jun 22; 18: 1109-15.

Jia Y, Zhang S, Miao L, Wang J, Jin Z, Gu B, Duan Z, Zhao Z, Ma S, Zhang W, and Li Z. "Activation of platelet protease-activated receptor-1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemotaxis of colon cancer cell line SW620." Oncol Rep. 2015 Jun; 33 (6): 2681-8.

Lu W, Tang Y, Zhang Z, Zhang X, Yao Y, Fu C, Wang X, and Ma G. "Inhibiting the mobilization of Ly6Chigh monocytes after acute myocardial infarction enhances the efficiency of mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation and curbs myocardial remodeling." Am J Transl Res. 2015 Mar 15; 7 (3): 587-97.

Boyd AM, Kato HK, Komiyama T, and Isaacson JS. "Broadcasting of cortical activity to the olfactory bulb." Cell Rep. 2015 Feb 24; 10 (7): 1032-9.

Cossell L, Iacaruso MF, Muir DR, Houlton R, Sader EN, Ko H, Hofer SB, and Mrsic-Flogel TD. "Functional organization of excitatory synaptic strength in primary visual cortex." Nature. 2015 Feb 19; 518 (7539): 399-403.



Partridge JG, Lewin AE, Yasko JR, and Vicini S. "Contrasting actions of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in distinct mouse striatal neurones." J Physiol. 2014 Jul 1; 592 (Pt 13): 2721-33.

Peters AJ, Chen SX, Komiyama T. "Emergence of reproducible spatiotemporal activity during motor learning." Nature. 2014 Jun 12; 510 (7504): 263-7.

Ehmke T, Nitzsche TH, Knebl A, and Heisterkamp A. "Molecular orientation sensitive second harmonic microscopy by radially and azimuthally polarized light." Biomed Opt Express. 2014 Jun 12; 5 (7): 2231-46.

Liu J, Wu N, Ma L, Liu M, Liu G, Zhang Y, and Lin X. "Oleanolic acid suppresses aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells by switching pyruvate kinase type M isoforms." PLoS One. 2014 Mar 13; 9 (3): e91606.

Palmer LM, Shai AS, Reeve JE, Anderson HL, Paulsen O, and Larkum ME. "NMDA spikes enhance action potential generation during sensory input." Nat Neurosci. 2014 Feb 2; 17 (3): 383-90.

Cai F, Yu J, Qian J, Wang Y, Chen Z, Huang J, Ye Z, and He, S. "Use of tunable second-harmonic signal from KNbO3 nanoneedles to find optimal wavelength for deep-tissue imaging." Laser & Photon Rev. 2014; 8: 865-874.



Kato HK, Gillet SN, Peters AJ, Isaacson JS, and Komiyama T. "Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons linearly control olfactory bulb output." Neuron. 2013 Dec 4; 80 (5): 1218-31.

Takata N, Nagai T, Ozawa K, Oe Y, Mikoshiba K, and Hirase H. "Cerebral blood flow modulation by Basal forebrain or whisker stimulation can occur independently of large cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes." PLoS One. 2013 Jun 13; 8 (6): e66525.

ThorImage®LS Software

(Click Here for Full Web Presentation)

Features of ThorImage®LS

Comprehensive Imaging Platform for:

Seamless Integration with Experiments

  • Simultaneous Multi-Point Photoactivation and Imaging with Spatial Light Modulator
  • Fast Z Volume Acquisition with PFM450E or Third-Party Objective Scanners
  • Electrophysiology Signaling
  • Wavelength Switching with Tiberius® Laser or Coherent Chameleon Lasers
  • Pockels Cell ROI Masking
  • Power Ramped with Depth to Minimize Damage and Maximize Signal-to-Noise

Advanced Software Functionality

  • Multi-Column Customizable Workspace
  • Image Acquisition Synced with Hardware Inputs and Timing Events
  • Live Image Correction and ROI Analysis
  • Independent Galvo-Galvo and Galvo-Resonant Scan Areas and Geometries
  • Tiling for High-Resolution Large-Area Imaging
  • Independent Primary and Secondary Z-Axis Control for Fast Deep-Tissue Scans
  • Automated Image Capture with Scripts
    • Compatible with ImageJ Macros
  • Multi-User Settings Saved for Shared Workstations
  • Individual Colors for Detection Channels Enable Simple Visual Analysis


The full source code for ThorImage®LS is available for owners of a Bergamo, Cerna, or confocal microscope. Click here to receive your copy.

ThorImageLS Brochure

ThorImageLS is an open-source image acquisition program that controls Thorlabs' Bergamo II, confocal microscopes, and Cerna® with hyperspectral imaging, as well as supplementary external hardware. From prepared-slice multiphoton Z-stacks to simultaneous in vivo photoactivation and imaging, ThorImageLS provides an integrated, modular workspace tailored to the individual needs of the scientist. Its workflow-oriented interface supports single image, Z-stacks, time series, and image streaming acquisition, visualization, and analysis. See the video at the top right for a real-time view of data acquisition and analysis with ThorImageLS.

ThorImageLS is included with a Thorlabs microscope purchase and open source, allowing full customization of software features and performance. ThorImageLS also includes Thorlabs’ customer support and regular software updates to continually meet the imaging demands of the scientific community.

For additional details, see the full web presentation.


New Functionality

Version 3.1 - October 25, 2017

Please contact to obtain the latest ThorImageLS version compatible with your microscope. Because ThorImageLS 3.x adds significant new features over 2.x and 1.x versions, it may not be compatible with older microscopes. We continue to support older software versions for customers with older hardware.

New Hardware Support
  • Added Support for Thorlabs' Scientific Monochrome CCD Cameras; Allows Imaging with Supported Cameras
  • Added Support for Spectra-Physics Insight Dual Port Laser
  • Added Support for Coherent Discovery Dual Port Laser
  • Added Support for Thorlabs' Tiberius Tunable TiSapphire Laser; Allows for Fast Sequence Capture
  • Added Support for Hyperspectral Imaging System; Allows Capture of a Hyperspectral Sequential Image Stack
  • Added Support for Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) Photo Activation; Allows for Calibration and User Interface for ROI Generated Patterns (Includes additional digital outputs for Galvo-Galvo)
  • Added Support for Thorlabs' Beam Stabilizer
  • Added Support for External USB National Instruments cards (USB-6363 and USB-6341)
  • Added Support for two additional Digital Shutters (Configured similarly as previous ThorShutterDig)
New Features
  • Added Disconnect State for available devices not to be controlled by ThorImageLS
  • Added Multiple Modalities; Allows user to configure and switch between different Imaging Modalities Easily
  • Added Digital Offset capability for PMT2000; Adjustment allows for same dynamic Range between Galvo-Resonant and Galvo-Galvo
  • Added Pockels Digital Output for Galvo-Resonant Scanner. (Similar to previous Galvo-Galvo functionality; Includes Output of Digital Line During Bleaching and Image Acquisition)
  • Added Pockels Digital Output to be Active during Image Acquisition for Galvo-Galvo (Previously only available during Bleaching)
  • Added Configurable Software Buttons to control NI Digitial PFI lines
  • Added Focus Tilt adjustment for Tile Capture; Allows User to Configure 3 Point Focus Plane to Be Used during Capture and Ensures Focus Across All Tiles.
  • Added Ability to Set the Pockels Power Mapping to Linear
  • Added Option to Turn Off Pockels Blanking a 0% for Galvo-Galvo
  • Added Pockels Phase Shift Setting to Galvo-Galvo (Previously only available for Galvo-Resonant)
  • Added Ability to Configure Min and Max Field Size for Scanners
  • Added PMT Selection for Simultaneous Bleach Imaging; Allows users to select PMT to be used for Simultaneous Bleach Imaging
  • Added Improved Hardware Triggering to Start Acquisition
  • Added Linearization Table for MCLS laser
  • Added Estimated Bleach duration for each Bleaching ROI; Located in Bleach Setup
User Interface (UI) Improvements
  • Added Quick Access Icon for Hardware Settings Window
  • Enhanced Displayed Device Feature; Allows User to Configure which Devices are Displayed in Hardware Setup
  • Added PMT Polarity Option to the UI Under the PMT More Panel
  • Added Search Capability when Editing Application and Device Settings
  • Added Display of Bergamo Rotation Value in Secondary Z Panel (Value saved in Experiment.xml)
  • Added Pockels Minimum Power Indicator on Pockels Slider; Gives indication if Pockels is Operating Below Recommended Minimum power
  • Added Ability to Control a Fourth Pockels for Galvo-Galvo Configurations
  • Added Custom Configuration of Pixel Density List
  • Added Center Bleach Scanner and Pockels Power Control to Bleach Panel
  • Added Do Not Show Message for Fiji Install Location Message
  • Enhanced ROI Calculations (Changed calculations may be slightly diffrent from previous versions, up to 3 decimal places.)
Fixed Bugs
  • Pockels Digital Output not Going Low for Single Point Bleach
  • Delete Experiment Raw file if Capture is Stopped Before First Trigger arrives
  • 3D View not Working Correctly in Image Review for Tiled Experiments
  • ROI Chart, Stats Table and Line Profile View Settings Get Deselected when Deleting all ROIs
  • Field Size Setting Issue with Galvo-Galvo when Using the Up and Down Zoom Buttons
  • Time Series Trigger First Acting like Trigger for Tiling Experiments
  • Streaming Capture Freezes when using Histogram Controls
  • Last Digit in Negative Z Limit Value Cut Off in Z Control Panel
  • Z Position Unit Incorrect (Displays mm instead of µm)
  • Incorrect High Voltage Range for PMT1002 (Can now be set to 1.1V)
  • Application Fault Switching to Capture Tab if Bleaching Power is Non-Whole Number.

Brochures and Mind Map

The buttons below link to PDFs of printable materials for Bergamo® II microscopes.

Bergamo II Brochure ThorImageLS Brochure Tiberius Brochure Download

Bergamo II Mind Map
Laser Scanning
Scan Path Wavelength Range 450 - 1100 nm, 680 - 1600 nm, or 900 - 1900 nm
Scan Paths Resonant-Galvo-Galvo Scanner, Galvo-Resonant Scanners,
Galvo-Galvo Scanners, or Spatial Light Modulator;
Single or Dual Scan Paths
Scan Speed 8 kHz Resonant-Galvo-Galvo
or Galvo-Resonant
2 fps at 4096 x 4096 Pixels
30 fps at 512 x 512 Pixels
400 fps at 512 x 32 Pixels
12 kHz Resonant-Galvo-Galvo
or Galvo-Resonant
4.4 fps at 2048 x 2048 Pixels
45 fps at 512 x 512 Pixels
600 fps at 512 x 32 Pixels
Galvo-Galvo 3 fps at 512 x 512 Pixels
48 fps at 512 x 32 Pixels
70 fps at 32 x 32 Pixels
Pixel Dwell Time: 0.4 to 20 µs
Galvo-Galvo Scan Modes Imaging: Line, Polyline, Square, or Rectangle
Non-Imaging: Circle, Ellipse, Polygon, or Point
Field of View 20 mm Diagonal Square (Max) at the Intermediate Image Plane
[12 mm Diagonal Square (Max) for 12 kHz Scanner]
Scan Zoom 1X to 16X (Continuously Variable)
Scan Resolution Up to 2048 x 2048 Pixels (Bi-Directional) [Up to 1168 x 1168 Pixels for 12 kHz Scanners]
Up to 4096 x 4096 Pixels (Unidirectional) [Up to 2336 x 2336 Pixels for 12 kHz Scanners]
Compatible Objective Threadings M34 x 1.0, M32 x 0.75, M25 x 0.75, and RMS
Multiphoton Signal Detection
Epi-Detection Up to Four Ultrasensitive GaAsP PMTs, Cooled or Non-Cooled
Forward Direction Two Ultrasensitive GaAsP PMTs
Maximum of Four PMTs Controlled by the Software at a Given Time
Collection Optics 8°, 10°, or 14° Collection Angle
(Angles Quoted When Using an Objective with a 20 mm Entrance Pupil)
Easy-to-Exchange Emission Filters and Dichroic Mirrors
Confocal Imaging
Motorized Pinhole Wheel with 16 Round Pinholes from Ø25 µm to Ø2 mm
Two to Four Laser Lines (488 nm Standard; Other Options Range from 405 nm to 660 nm)
Standard Multialkali or High-Sensitivity GaAsP PMTs
Easy-to-Exchange Emission Filters and Dichroic Mirrors
Widefield Viewing
Manual or Motorized Switching Between Scanning and Widefield Modes
Illumination Provided via LED or Liquid Light Guide
C-Mount Threads for Scientific Cameras
Transmitted Light Imaging
Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) or Dodt Gradient Contrast
Widefield or Laser Scanned
Illumination Provided by Visible and/or NIR LEDs
Compatible with Air or Oil Immersion Condensers
Microscope Body Rotation
(Rotating Bodies Only)
-5° to +95°, -50° to +50°, or -45° to +45° Around Objective Focus
0.1° Encoder Resolution
Coarse Elevator Base Z
(Rotating Bodies Only)
5" (127 mm) Total Travel; 1 µm Encoder Resolution
Fine Microscope Body X and Y 2" (50.8 mm) Total Travel; 0.5 µm Encoder Resolution
Fine Microscope Arm Z  1" (25.4 mm) Total Travel; 0.1 µm Encoder Resolution
Fine Objective Z
(Piezo Objective Scanner)
Open Loop: 600 µm ± 10% Travel Range; 1 nm Resolution
Closed Loop: 450 µm Travel Range; 3 nm Resolution

Thorlabs recognizes that each imaging application has unique requirements.
If you have any feedback, questions, or need a quotation, please use our
multiphoton microscopy contact form or call (703) 651-1700.

Posted Comments:
jfpena  (posted 2016-12-19 18:15:55.003)
I am looking for a cheap way to do confocal imaging in vivo. Is this Bergamo II Series Multiphoton Microscope my best option? Can you send me a quote?
tfrisch  (posted 2016-12-22 11:44:31.0)
Hello, thank you for contacting Thorlabs. A member of our Imaging Team will reach out to you directly to discuss this system and your application.
birech  (posted 2016-11-17 06:33:49.463)
I asked for a price quote for this product, Bergamo II Series Multiphoton Microscopes three days ago. I am working at the University of Nairobi in Kenya and would wish to order one. Regards, Birech
tfrisch  (posted 2016-11-17 06:56:23.0)
Hello, thank you for contacting Thorlabs. I have forwarded this request to our Imaging Sales Team. I apologize for the delay.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
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Last Edited: Nov 08, 2013 Author: Dan Daranciang