Quantum Technologies


  • Photonics Equipment for Quantum Technologies
  • Next-Day Availability

SPDC810

Correlated Photon-Pair Source

DNVB14

Single-Crystal Diamond with
Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers

SPDMA

Single Photon Detection Module with Adjustable Gain

VC2H2S

UHV Compatible Fiber Feedthrough for Ø2.75" CF Flange

P3-980PMP-1

High-ER PM Patch Cable, 980 nm, FC/APC

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Thorlabs' Equipment for Quantum Technologies

Thorlabs provides an array of photonics equipment for quantum technologies and applications including:
  • Single Photon Sources and Detectors
  • Single-Crystal Diamonds with Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers
  • Balanced Detectors with Excellent Common Mode Rejection
  • Polaris® Mounts for High Precision and Long-Term Alignment Stability
  • Polarization-Maintaining Fiber Optic Patch Cables
  • Diffraction-Limited Fiber Coupling and Collimation Packages
  • Fiber Polarization Controllers
  • Turnkey, Ultra-Low-Noise Laser Systems
  • High-Vacuum Compatible Viewports and Windows
  • Ultra-High Vacuum Compatible Fiber Feedthroughs
  • Sealed Vapor Reference Cells
  • Quantum-Mechanical Concept Demonstration Kits Ideal for Educational or Training Purposes

The technological world is currently in the middle of a quantum revolution. Rapid developments in the fields of quantum communication, computing, imaging, sensing, and simulation have leveraged counter-intuitive quantum mechanical concepts such as the uncertainty principle, superposition, and entanglement to realize new scientific discoveries and world-changing technologies. As advancements in quantum technology continue to be made, Thorlabs remains dedicated to providing the components necessary for photonics-based quantum applications. For any inquiries related to custom solutions, please contact Tech Support.

A selection of our products that are well-suited for quantum applications are shown in the table below; please click on the image for further details. See the Publications tab for a partial and growing list of articles which have utilized Thorlabs' products for research on quantum technologies and related applications.

SPDC Electrical and Fiber Connections
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Photon-Pair Source shown with P1-780PM-FC-1 patch cables (included) connected to the signal and idler outputs.
SPDC810 Typical Coincidence Histogram
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A second-order correlation measurement [g(2)(τ)] between signal and idler photons. The peak at τ = 0 confirms the generation of photon pairs.

Single Photon Source

  • Heralded Single-Photon Source with g(2)(τ = 0) < 0.1
  • Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion (SPDC) Source
    (Collinear Type-II)
  • Photon-Pair Generation at 810 nm
  • Integrated 405 nm Pump Laser
  • >0.45 High-Efficiency Heralding Ratio
  • >450 kHz Pair Generation Rate
  • ±2.5 nm Wavelength Stability for Emitted Photons
  • Room Temperature Operation

Thorlabs' Correlated Photon-Pair Source uses spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) to generate a pair of photons near 810 nm. With an integrated 405 nm pump laser, this self-contained source results in >450k photon pairs per second and a high-efficiency heralding ratio of >0.45. A zero-time delay second-order correlation function [g(2) (τ = 0)] value of <0.1 can be achieved with this source, making it a high-brightness heralded single-photon source ideal for quantum optics applications.

Housing Features
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The Photon Detection Efficiency (PDE) is shown here as a function of wavelength for the SPDMA module at both Max and Min Gain, the SPDMHx modules, and the SPCMxxA(/M) modules. The operating range of the SPDMA module is 350 nm - 1100 nm, for the SPDMHx modules it is 400 nm - 1000 nm, and the operating range of the SPCMxxA(/M) modules is 350 nm - 900 nm.

Single Photon Detectors

  • Single Photon Detection or Counting Modules
  • Low Dark Counts
  • Detector Sizes of Ø20 µm, Ø50 µm, Ø100 µm, or Ø500 µm
  • Active Quenching and Temperature Stabilization

Thorlabs offers single photon detectors and counting modules with a range of photon detection efficiencies (PDEs), detector sizes, gain options, and wavelength ranges. The SPDMA Single Photon Detection Module, designed for use from 350 to 1100 nm, features continuously adjustable gain and an SMA electrical connector from which the TTL output can monitored by an oscilloscope or external counter. Comparatively, the SPDMHx Fixed-Gain Single Photon Detection Modules, for use from 400 to 1000 nm, combine a higher PDE in the NIR (see the graph to the right) with low maximum dark count rates; the output TTL pulses are accessible via a LEMO connector. Finally, the SPCMxxA(/M) Single Photon Counting Modules have an internal 31-bit photon counter, include a software package for controlling the detector and reading the output, and are intended for use from 350 to 900 nm.

SPDMA
The SPDMA detector has a large Ø500 μm active detector, has adjustable gain, and provides an extended PDE into the NIR.
SPDMH3
The SPDMH3 detector has a Ø100 μm active detector for free-space input beams, fixed gain, and a low dark count rate.
SPDMH2F
The SPDMH2F detector has an FC/PC input connector that is pre-aligned to the detector.
SPCM50A
The SPCM50A counting module has a Ø50 μm active detector with an internal 31-bit photon counter and a software package.
Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers
Click for Details

Nitrogen-vacancy centers are defects in the carbon lattice that are paired with adjacent vacancies.
NV Diamond
DNVB14 Diamond with
Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers
Typical Quantum Properties
Item # DNVB1 DNVB14 ELSC4x
NV Center Density 300 ppb 4.5 ppm ≤0.03 ppb
Spin Coherence Time T2* a 1 µs 0.5 µs -
Spin Coherence Time T2 b 200 µs 10 µs -
Diamond Grade Quantum Quantum Electronic
  • Inhomogeneous Transverse Spin Coherence Time
  • Hahn-Echo Measured Spin Coherence Time

Diamonds with Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers

  • Single-Crystal Diamonds Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
  • Quantum-Grade or Electronic-Grade Diamonds Available
  • Three NV Center Densities Available:
    • DNVB1: 300 ppb
    • DNVB14: 4.5 ppm
    • ELSC40 and ELSC45: ≤0.03 ppb

These single-crystal diamonds, which are manufactured by Element Six using patented processes and offered by Thorlabs to enable quantum research advancements, are ideal for magnetic field sensing, RF detection, gyroscopes, masers, quantum demonstrations, quantum computing, quantum communication, and research applications. The quantum-grade diamonds are available with either 300 ppb or 4.5 ppm nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center densities. For users who wish to create their own defect centers, electronic-grade diamonds with ≤0.03 ppb NV concentration and a low background impurity level are available. These diamonds are also useful for applications such as fabricating ionizing radiation-resistant devices.

SPDMA Housing Features
The PDB210A is designed for free-space inputs and features large active area, Ø5 mm Si detectors that are separated by 2.00" for easier beam alignment.
Housing Features
The PDB450C accepts FC/PC or FC/APC fiber inputs via a removable adapter. Output signals are transmitted through female SMA electrical ports.

Balanced Detectors

  • Fiber-Coupled or Free-Space Options Available
  • Si or InGaAs Detectors
  • Models Available with Bandwidths up to 2.5 GHz
  • Wavelength Ranges from 320 nm to 1700 nm
  • Common Mode Rejection Ratios up to >35 dB, Depending on Model

Thorlabs' balanced photodetectors act as balanced receivers by subtracting the two optical input signals from each other, resulting in the cancellation of common mode noise. This allows small changes in the signal path to be extracted from the interfering noise floor. Each detector uses two well-matched Si or InGaAs detectors and an ultra-low-noise transimpedance amplifier for improved noise reduction. Our fiber-coupled balanced detectors with fast monitor outputs have FC/PC or FC/APC compatible adapters; on some models these adapters may be removed to allow for coupling of free-space light. We also offer balanced detectors designed for free-space applications that feature a larger active detector area, with detector diameters up to 5 mm available.

Our auto-balanced detector with avalanche photodiodes is optimized for applications with low optical input powers. This fiber-coupled detector is optimized for 1300 nm, and has an auto-balanced detection mode which automatically compensates for power differences between the two optical input signals that vary at a slower rate than a tunable cutoff frequency.

Polaris® Optic Mount Selection Guide
Optic Retention Method
(Click Image
to Enlarge)
Mount Type Optic Sizes Available

Side Lock
Kinematic Ø1/2", Ø19 mm, Ø25 mm, Ø1", Ø1.5", Ø50 mm, Ø2", Ø3"
Fixed Ø1/2", Ø1", Ø2"

SM Threaded
Kinematic Ø1/2", Ø1", Ø2"

Low Distortion
Kinematic Ø1/2", Ø19 mm, Ø25 mm, Ø1", Ø1.5", Ø50 mm, Ø2", Ø4", Ø6"

Glue In
Kinematic Ø1/2", Ø19 mm, Ø1"
Fixed Ø1/2", Ø1", Ø2"

Platform Mount
Kinematic Platform Size: 1.80" x 1.80"
(45.7 mm x 45.7 mm)

Polaris® Mirror Mounts

  • Designed for Long-Term Beam Pointing Stability
  • Minimal Temperature-Dependent Hysteresis
  • Cleanroom and Vacuum Compatible
  • Models for Optics from Ø1/2" to Ø6"
  • Four Optic Retention Methods and Six Adjuster Types

Thorlabs' Polaris® line of products are the ultimate solution for quantum applications requiring stringent long-term alignment stability. Polaris mounts are available for optics as small as Ø1/2" and as large as Ø6". We offer fixed or kinematic Polaris mounts with various optic retention methods; please see the Selection Guide to the right. In addition, all of our Polaris mounts and accessories are cleanroom and vacuum compatible.

Polaris mounts with the side lock retention method feature a patented optic bore design with a monolithic flexure arm or a flexure spring and setscrew combination to hold the optic. These designs provide high holding force and pointing stability with minimal optic distortion. For applications where there may not be enough space behind the mount for horizontal access to the adjusters, we offer these mounts with integrated vertical-drive adjusters.

Our SM-threaded Polaris mounts feature an SM05-threaded (0.535"-40), SM1-threaded (1.035"-40), or SM2-threaded (2.035"-40) bore which allows a variety of optical components to be secured in the mount.

The Polaris low-distortion kinematic mirror mounts use a patented three-point-contact faceplate design to provide long-term pointing stability while minimizing optic surface distortion. An indexed retention spring between the optic and retaining ring eliminates bending moments on the optic and ensures the force on the optic remains constant over large temperature changes.

Polaris glue-in mirror mounts, available in kinematic or fixed varieties, feature a mounting cell in which an optic can be permanently fixed with an optical adhesive. This mounting technique results in significantly less optical surface distortion than traditional methods based on setscrews or flexure mechanisms.

The Polaris kinematic platform mount provides a flat mounting surface with an array of nine 8-32 (M4) tapped holes and one #8 (M4) clearance hole for mounting optomechanical components. The clearance hole and two of the tapped holes each include two alignment pin holes, which allow the user to precisely align components mounted on these holes using dowel pins.

We also offer Polaris kinematic mounts with piezoelectric adjusters for applications requiring actively monitored, long-term alignment stability. We recommend driving the piezo actuators using our benchtop or Kinesis® K-Cube™ piezo controllers.

For custom mount configurations or custom orders, please contact Tech Support.

Polaris Mount Adjuster Types (Click Image for Details)
Side Hole Hex Adjuster Knobs Adjuster
Lock Nuts
Piezo Adjusters Vertical-Drive Adjusters
PM Patch Cable Cross Section
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The connector key on our PM fiber patch cables is aligned to the slow axis of the fiber.
P3-780PMY-2 Fiber PM Patch Cable
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The P3-780PMY-2 PM patch cable has an alignment wavelength of 780 nm and a typical extinction ratio of 22 dB.

Polarization Maintaining (PM) Fibers

  • Operating Wavelengths from NUV to NIR
  • FC/PC, FC/APC, and Hybrid FC/PC to FC/APC Patch Cables Available
  • High-Extinction Ratio (33 dB Typ.) PM Patch Cables
  • Antireflection-Coated Patch Cables for Improved System Transmission

Thorlabs offers Polarization-Maintaining (PM) Single Mode Fiber Optic Patch Cables with a variety of connector options, including FC/PC, FC/APC, and hybrid FC/PC to FC/APC cables. Patch cables are available from stock with design wavelengths from 375 nm to 2000 nm. Our high-extinction-ratio PM patch cables are specially designed to have a high extinction ratio and low insertion loss as compared to our standard PM patch cables. We also offer antireflection-coated PM patch cables that are designed to minimize reflections when either launching a free-space beam out of the fiber or coupling a free-space beam into the fiber.

TC25FC-1064
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The TC25FC-1064 has a wavelength-adjusted focal length of 25.23 mm, an NA of 0.25, and an alignment wavelength of 1060 nm.
Triplet Lens Collimator Cross Section
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Our triplet lens collimators feature an air-spaced design to produce superior beam quality and less wavefront error compared to aspheric lens collimators.

Fiber Collimation

  • Triplet or Quadruplet Lens Designs Provide Nearly Gaussian Output
  • Diffraction-Limited Wavefront Error: λ/8 (Peak-to-Valley, Typical)
  • Ideal for Fiber-to-Free-Space Collimation or Coupling

Triplet Fiber Optic Collimators/Couplers

  • Three-Element, Air-Spaced-Lens Design
  • Focal Lengths Near 6 mm, 12 mm, 18 mm, or 25 mm
  • Alignment Wavelengths from 405 nm to 2 μm
  • FC/PC and FC/APC Receptacles Available

Thorlabs' Triplet Fiber Collimators use air-spaced triplet lenses that produce a beam quality superior to aspheric lens collimators. The benefits of the low-aberration triplet design include an M2 term closer to 1 (ideal Gaussian), less divergence, and less wavefront error. Our triplet fiber collimators are available from stock with alignment wavelengths ranging from 405 nm to 2 μm, effective focal lengths of approximately 6 mm, 12 mm, 18 mm, or 25 mm, and either an FC/PC or FC/APC connector. Each lens in the collimator has a broadband antireflection coating in order to minimize losses produced by surface reflections. In addition, these triplet collimator packages use high-precision 2.2 mm wide key connectors with tightly toleranced ceramic sleeves that provide excellent pointing repeatability, allowing for easy removal and replacement of the fiber. For triplet collimators aligned to a wavelength other than what is available from stock, please contact Tech Support for additional information.

C40FC-C Application Idea
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C40FC-C Collimator Mounted on a Ø1/2" Post Using an SM1RC(/M) Slip Ring 

Large-Beam Achromatic Fiber Collimators, Adjustable Focus

  • Long Effective Focal Length: 20 mm, 40 mm, or 80 mm
  • Four-Element, Air-Spaced-Lens Design
  • FC/PC, FC/APC, or SMA Connector
  • Three AR Coating Wavelength Ranges Available

Our Achromatic Fiber Collimators with adjustable focus are designed with an effective focal length (EFL) of 20 mm, 40 mm, or 80 mm. The four-element, air-spaced-lens design produces superior beam quality (M2 close to 1) and less wavefront error when compared to aspheric lens collimators. The focus distance can be adjusted between infinity and the closest focusing distance by rotating the red ring in the middle of the housing. This allows for simple optimization of coupling efficiency from a free-space laser beam into a fiber. Each collimation package is available from stock with an antireflection coating for one of three wavelength ranges: 400 - 650 nm, 650 nm - 1050 nm, or 1050 nm - 1650 nm. For laser line antireflection coatings centered at a specific wavelength, please contact Tech Support. The 40 mm EFL and 80 mm EFL collimators feature external SM1 (1.035"-40) and SM2 (2.035"-40) threading on the free-space end, respectively, while the 20 mm EFL collimators include both internal SM05 (0.035"-40) and external SM1 (1.035"-40) threading. This allows a lens tube to be attached to the free-space end of the collimator.

Fiber Controller Paddles
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Rotation of the three FPC032 fiber controller paddles to control the output polarization. The fast and slow axes of the third paddle are indicated.
Controller Mounting
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A mounted MPC220 controller is loaded with a Ø900 µm jacketed FC/PC patch cable. The connected USB cable is used for power and communication with the Kinesis software.

Fiber Polarization Management

Paddle Polarization Controllers

  • Convert Between Linear, Circular, and Elliptical Polarization States
  • Compatible with Ø900 µm Jacketed Fibers
  • Two- or Three-Paddle Manual or Motorized Versions Available

Thorlabs offers manual and motorized two- or three-paddle polarization controllers that use stress-induced birefringence within a fiber to dynamically control the output polarization state of light. Each paddle behaves as an independent fractional waveplate, and by rotating each individual paddle, thus changing the fast axis of the fiber which is in the plane of the spool, polarizations across the full Poincaré sphere may be achieved. Manual fiber polarization controllers are available preloaded with one of six fiber types, or empty to allow the user to insert their own single mode fiber with a Ø900 µm jacket. Motorized fiber polarization controllers are provided empty, and may be driven with Thorlabs' Kinesis® software package.

Compact Fiber Polarization Controllers

  • Fiber Squeezer Design Creates an In-Fiber Variable Wave Plate
  • Compact Footprint
  • Versions for Ø250 µm Bare Fiber or Ø900 µm Tight-Buffer Jacketed Fiber

Our compact, in-line polarization controller creates stress-induced birefringence within SM fiber by mechanically compressing the fiber, allowing it to act like a single continuously variable wave plate, similar to a Soleil-Babinet compensator. These controllers are designed for use with Ø250 µm bare fiber or Ø900 µm tight-buffer fiber, and can be inserted into devices without disconnecting either end from a setup.

CPC900 Polarization Controller
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Features of the Compact In-Line Fiber Polarization Controller
FiberBench With and Without Cover
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The FiberBench polarization controller kits are provided with two FiberPorts, two rotating quarter-wave plates, a rotating half-wave plate, and a dust cover.

 

FiberBench Polarization Controllers

  • Deterministic Polarization Control
  • Mechanically and Thermally Stable
  • Supports Both FC/PC and FC/APC Connectors
  • 700 - 1050 nm or 1100 - 1620 nm Operating Ranges

Thorlabs' FiberBench Polarization Controller Kits allow you to transform an arbitrary input polarization state into an arbitrary output polarization state. Built upon our FiberBench product line, the all-stainless steel construction offers high thermal and mechanical stability. Our single-axis polarization controller kits include two FiberPorts, two rotating quarter-wave plates, a rotating half-wave plate, and have a 700 - 1050 nm (PC-FFB-780) or 1100 - 1620 nm (PC-FFB-1550) operating range. These kits are ideal for repeatable and deterministic control over the output polarization. We also offer variable polarization beamsplitter kits that use a polarizing beamsplitter cube to split the light into horizontal and vertical polarization components. These are available with a 700 - 1000 nm (PFS-FFT-1X2-780) or 1200 - 1600 nm (PFS-FFT-1X2-1550) wavelength operating range and are provided with three FiberPorts, a polarizing beamsplitter, and a half-wave plate. All of our FiberBench polarization controller kits are compatible with both FC/PC and FC/APC connectors.

In addition to the kits, we also offer individual FiberBench polarization modules such as a linear polarization reference module and precision rotating linear polarizer modules. 

Polarization Maintaining PBC
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This diagram shows the polarization orientations and in-line calcite prism used in our 3 PM port fiber-based polarization beam combiners/splitters.

Fused Fiber Polarization Combiners/Splitters

  • Combine or Split Orthogonal Polarizations
  • Center Wavelengths from 780 nm to 1550 nm
  • Unterminated Fiber Leads or 2.0 mm Narrow Key FC/PC or FC/APC Connectors 

We offer a variety of fused fiber polarization combiners and splitters that may be used to combine or split orthogonal linearly polarized light using continuous fused fiber junctions with center wavelengths from 780 to 1550 nm. Options are available that merge two PM ports to one SM port, split one SM port into two PM ports, or have three PM ports.

Fused PBC Diagram
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This diagram shows a combining orientation for a fused fiber polarization combiner with connectors.
ULN15TK with PM Fiber and SMA Cables
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The ULN15TK laser can be mounted to an optical table using four 1/4"-20 cap screws. The ULN15TK is pictured with a P3-1550PM-FC-5 PM fiber patch cable and three CA2912 SMA cables, which are connected to the optical output and analog modulation ports, respectively.

Narrow-Linewidth Single-Frequency Laser System

  • Turnkey, C-Band, Single-Frequency Laser System
  • Center Wavelength of 1550 nm ± 15 nm with 100 Hz Lorentzian Linewidth (Typ.)
  • Typical Output Power of 120 mW
  • Analog Modulation Inputs for DC Current, AC Current, and Laser Temperature
  • 20 MHz Current Modulation Bandwidth
  • Temperature-Stabilized Case for Long-Term Stability
  • Integrated Fiber Isolator with >25 dB Isolation to Minimize Effects of Back-Reflected Light
  • Remote Operation and Set-Point Adjustment with Command-Line Interface via USB 2.0

Thorlabs' ULN15TK Turnkey, Ultra-Low-Noise (ULN) Laser System is a ready-to-use laser system that integrates our ULN15PC laser, which has a patented fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based design, with a low-noise driver and temperature stabilization inside of a benchtop housing. This turnkey laser system provides single-frequency emission with relative intensity noise below -160 dBc/Hz and typical (Lorentzian) linewidths of 100 Hz. Factory-set for optimized performance, this laser offers typical optical output powers of 120 mW with a typical side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 70 dB. The narrow linewidth offered by this laser, especially when coupled to an external optical reference cavity, makes it ideal for use in the development of optical clocks and for neutral atom quantum compuation.

The optical output of this laser is fiber-coupled via an FC/APC bulkhead (2.0 mm narrow key) output connector. For best performance, we recommend connecting our PM FC/APC fiber patch cables that contain PM1550-XP fiber, such as the P3-1550PM-FC-1.

To achieve the narrow linewidth provided by the ULN15PC laser, this turnkey ULN laser includes drive electronics that are designed to minimize the current noise. The drive electronics also include a thermal stabilization system that controls the internal temperature settings of the laser and ensures long-term power and wavelength stability when the system is used in standard laboratory environments. A fiber isolator is also integrated at the output of the laser to minimize the impact of any back-reflected light on the laser.


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VC22FL Flange with FiberPort
(SH2S019 Mounting Screws Sold Separately)

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VC22FL Flange with SM1L10 Lens Tube

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VC22FL Flange with Cage Rods and CP33 Cage Plate

Vacuum Components

  • Ø2.75" CF Flange Viewports and Windows for High Vacuum
  • Ø2.75" CF Flange Fiber Feedthrough for Ultra-High Vacuum
  • Options for Ø1" Flat Windows and Ø1.5" Flat or Wedged Windows
  • Compatible with Thorlabs' Line of Optomechanical Components

Thorlabs offers a growing line of high-vacuum compatible CF viewports, flanges, components, and hardware. High-vacuum (HV) systems are capable of reaching and maintaining pressures down to 10-8 Torr. Our Ø2.75" HV CF Viewports utilize Viton O-Ring seals to create an air-tight metal/glass seal, have a maximum bake temperature of 150 °C, and a maximum thermal gradient of 20 °C/min. Viewports designed for Ø1" windows are available from stock with one of three uncoated window substrates: sapphire (200 nm - 4.5 μm), CaF2 (180 nm - 8.0 μm), or UVFS (185 nm - 2.1 μm). The provided window may be replaced with any of our flat Ø1" windows that are 4.9 - 5.15 mm thick. We also offer viewports that are designed for Ø1.5" flat windows or Ø1.5" wedged windows. These viewports are available with UVFS windows that are either uncoated or have one of our four low-loss standard broadband antireflection coatings deposited on both optical surfaces.

Our Ø2.75" HV CF Viewports are also designed for compatibility with Thorlabs' line of optomechanics. Four 4-40 mounting holes enable compatibility with our 30 mm cage system, while internal SM threads allow connection by our lens tube systems. In addition, the viewports designed for Ø1" windows have four 2-56 mounting holes that allow our FiberPort collimators to be directly adapted to the viewport.


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Click for Data
This attenuation data was calculated as a function of wavelength for the fibers used in the UHV fiber feedthrough CF flanges.
Ultra-High Vacuum Fiber Feedthrough CF Flange Cross-Section
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Ultra-High Vacuum Fiber Feedthrough CF Flange Cross-Section

We also offer a Ø2.75" fiber feedthrough CF flange to allow for optical coupling into ultra-high vacuum (UHV) systems down to 10-10 Torr. These feedthroughs incorporate a hermetically sealed step-index multimode fiber in a stainless steel shell, provide a low insertion loss of ≤2.3 dB, can handle optical powers up to 1 W, and have a maximum bake temperature of 250 °C. Feedthroughs are available with Ø100 μm, Ø200 μm, Ø400 μm, or Ø600 μm fiber cores with high OH fiber for wavelengths from 200 nm to 1200 nm or low OH fiber for wavelengths from 400 nm to 2400 nm. The fiber feedthroughs feature male SMA905 connectors on both sides; mating sleeves may be used to connect fiber patch cables. For the side of the feedthrough that is inside of the vacuum environment, the ADASMAV vacuum-compatible SMA-to-SMA mating sleeve can be used to connect a vacuum-compatible patch cable.

Copper gasket and mounting hardware sets for our Ø2.75" flanges are also available.

GC19100-I Vapor Reference Cell
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The GC19100-I quartz vapor reference cell contains iodine (I) vapor and has wedged UVFS windows to eliminate etalon effects.
GC25075-RB Vapor Reference Cell
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The GC25075-RB vapor reference cell contains rubidium (Rb) and is fabricated from borosilicate glass, a rugged material known to resist chipping and cracking.

Vapor Reference Cells

  • Sealed Glass Cells with Vapors of Specific Elements
  • Borosilicate Glass Reference Cells
    • Cesium (Cs)
    • Potassium (K)
    • Sodium (Na)
    • Rubidium (Rb)
  • Quartz Glass Reference Cells
    • Cesium (Cs)
    • Iodine (I)
    • Rubidium (Rb)
    • Enhanced Rubidium 87 (87Rb)
Please note: These reference cells are subject to hazardous goods regulations and must be shipped separately using specifically regulated shipping methods and may require special shipping and handling charges. Next day delivery is not available. All orders will ship from our US warehouse regardless of destination and cannot be returned. Due to hazardous materials shipping regulations, we are currently unable to ship our reference cells to Brazil, China, or Uruguay.

Thorlabs offers sealed glass reference cells that contain vapors of specific atomic elements or molecular compounds, each of which has a well-defined absorption spectrum. These cells may be used for the stabilization of laser frequencies, in quantum memory systems, and in magnetometry. They also have spectroscopic applications such as tunable diode laser calibration, the calibration of wavelength meters, and as elements in magneto-optical traps for atomic cooling. Both borosilicate and quartz reference cells are available with a range of standard fill materials. All of the cells that we offer are baked and evacuated to
10-8 Torr in order to remove contaminants prior to filling. Additionally, each cell is helium leak checked to ensure the longevity of the vapor cell. Custom reference cells can be manufactured upon request.

Our borosilicate glass reference cells are available from stock with cesium (Cs), potassium (K), sodium (Na), or rubidium (Rb) vapor. These cells are tested to ensure that the transmission through the cell exceeds 84% for light in the 350 nm to 2.2 μm range. The cells are 71.8 mm (2.83") long and have an outer diameter of 25.4 mm (1.00") with a >20.0 mm (>0.79") clear aperture.

Quartz reference cells are available from stock with cesium (Cs), iodine (I), rubidium (Rb), or enhanced rubidium 87 (87Rb) vapor. These cells feature UV fused silica windows for superior transmission in the UV spectral range. The windows, which are angled to compensate for beam offset, are designed with a 2 degree wedge so as to eliminate etalon effects. The outer diameter of the cells is 19.0 mm (0.75"). Cesium, rubidium and enhanced rubidium cells have a length of 75.0 mm (2.95"), while the iodine reference cell has a length of 100.0 mm (3.94").

Quantum Eraser Demonstration
Click for Details

Quantum Eraser Demonstration Optical Components and Beam Path

Educational Kits

  • Ideal for Educational, Demonstration, and Training Purposes
  • Classical Analogs of Fundamental Quantum Optic Phenomena
  • Kits Include All Necessary Hardware Plus Extensive Manual and Teaching Materials
  • Easy to Assemble and Use

Thorlabs' line of educational products aims to promote physics, optics, and photonics by covering many classic experiments, as well as emerging fields of research and quantum technologies. Each educational kit includes all the necessary components and a manual that contains both detailed setup instructions and extensive teaching materials. These kits are offered at the price of the included components, with the additional materials offered for free. Technical support from our educational team is available both before and after purchase.

Quantum Eraser Demonstration Kit
The quantum eraser demonstration kit illustrates the quantum-mechanical principles of complementarity, path information, and superposition. In the quantum-mechanical experiment, single photons are emitted into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and, using linear polarizers, the photons are "marked" as having either a horizontal or vertical polarization state, indicating which side of the interferometer they have traveled through. The interference patten (wave property) and path information (particle property) cannot be measured simultaneously, since measuring the path information destroys the interference pattern. A third linear polarizer, placed after the beams have been recombined, "erases" the path information, thus restoring the interference pattern. Please note that, rather than using single photons as in the original quantum eraser experiment, the EDU-QE1(/M) kit uses a green continuous-wave laser light source that produces a beam that is visible to the naked eye. While the results may thus be explained by the classical properties of light polarization, the quantum-mechanical explanation serves as an analogy to the single photon experiment.

Quantum Cryptography Analogy Demonstration Kit
Our quantum cryptography kit is designed to demonstrate the fundamentals of quantum cryptography and the BB84 encryption protocol thorugh a series of experiments. In these experiments, users will learn how to encode messages in binary using the polarization state of light and then encrypt them using the BB84 protocol. Please note that the EDU-QCRY1(/M) analogy kit uses a pulsed laser source, i.e. classical light. While the sequence of the protocol is completely identical to the true quantum encryption system, it cannot be used as a perfect encryption system.

Quantum Cryptography Kit
Thorlabs' Quantum Cryptography Analogy Demonstration Kit illustrates the fundamentals of quantum cryptography and the BB84 encryption protocol.

Select Publications

2022

 

Y. Bloom, I. Fields, A. Maslennikov, and G.G. Rozenman, "Quantum Cryptography—A Simplified Undergraduate Experiment and Simulation," Physics 4, 104-123 (2022)
» Products Cited: EDU-QCRY1(/M)

2021

 

P. Bevington, R. Gartman, and W. Chalupczak , "Object detection with an alkali-metal spin maser", J. Appl. Phys. 130, 214501 (2021)
» Products Cited: PDB150A

S. Lee, S.-B. Lee, S.E. Park, H.-G. Hong, M.-S. Heo, S. Seo, J. Jeong, T.Y. Kwon, and G. Moon, "Compact modulation transfer spectroscopy module for highly stable laser frequency," Opt. Lasers Eng. 146, 106698 (2021)
» Products Cited: PDA10A2, POLARIS-K05S1, POLARIS-K1-2AH

J.S. Stuart, M. Hedges, R. Ahlefeldt, and M. Sellars, "Initialization protocol for efficient quantum memories using resolved hyperfine structure," Phys. Rev. Res. 3, L032054 (2021)
» Products Cited: FPL1009S

D. Main, T.M. Hird, S. Gao, E. Oguz, D.J. Saunders, I.A. Walmsley, and P.M. Ledingham, "Preparing narrow velocity distributions for quantum memories in room-temperature alkali-metal vapors," Phys. Rev. A 103, 043105 (2021)
» Products Cited: APD120

P.C. Fariña, B. Merkel, N.H. Valencia, P. Yu, A. Ulanowski, and A. Reiserer, "Coherent Control in the Ground and Optically Excited States of an Ensemble of Erbium Dopants," Phys. Rev. Appl. 15, 064028 (2021)
» Products Cited: PDB570C, GRIN2915, SMPF0215

J. Shi, W. Sun, H. Utzat, A. Farahvash, F.Y. Gao, Z. Zhang, U. Barotov, A.P. Willard, K.A. Nelson and M.G. Bawendi, "All-optical fluorescence blinking control in quantum dots with ultrafast mid-infrared pulses," Nat. Nanotechnol. 16, 1355-1361 (2021)
» Products Cited: WP25H-K

F.M. Stürner, A. Brennis, T. Buck, J. Kassel, R. Rölver, T. Fuchs, A. Savitsky, D. Suter, J. Grimmel, S. Hengesbach, M. Förtsch, K. Nakamura, H. Sumiya, S. Onoda, J. Isoya, and F. Jelezko, "Integrated and Portable Magnetometer Based on Nitrogen-Vacancy Ensembles in Diamond," Adv. Quantum Technol. 4, 2000111 (2021)
» Products Cited: PM-S405-XP

S. Kanthak, M. Gebbe, M. Gersemann, S. Abend, E.M. Rasel, M. Krutzik, "Time-domain optics for atomic quantum matter," New J. Phys. 23, 093002 (2021)
» Products Cited: IO-5-1064-VHP, TC25FC-1064

2020

 

R.L. Patel, L.Q. Zhou, A.C. Frangeskou, G.A. Stimpson, B.G. Breeze, A. Nikitin, M.W. Dale, E.C. Nichols, W. Thornley, B.L. Green, M.E. Newton, A.M. Edmonds, M.L. Markham, D.J. Twitchen, and G.W. Morley, "Subnanotesla Magnetometry with a Fiber-Coupled Diamond Sensor", Phys. Rev. Applied 14, 044058 (2020)
» Products Cited: PDB450A, BSF10-A, FG400AEA, SM1NR05, C171TMD-B, C330TMD-B

H. Zheng, Z. Sun, G. Chatzidrosos, C. Zhang, K. Nakamura, H. Sumiya, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, A. Wickenbrock, and D. Budker, "Microwave-Free Vector Magnetometry with Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers along a Single Axis in Diamond," Phys. Rev. Applied 13, 044023 (2020)
» Products Cited: PDA36A, PT3-Z8 (PT3/M-Z8), NR360S

S. Kulkarni, A. Uminska, J. Gleason, S. Barke, R. Ferguson, J. Sanjuán, P. Fulda, and G. Mueller, "Ultrastable optical components using adjustable commercial mirror mounts anchored in a ULE spacer," Appl. Opt. 59, 6999-7003 (2020)
» Products Cited: POLARIS-K1T1

S. Prabhakar, T. Shields, A.C. Dada, M. Ebrahim, G.G. Taylor, D. Morozov, K. Erotokritou, S. Miki, M. Yabuno, H. Terai, C. Gawith, M. Kues, L. Caspani, R.H. Hadfield, and M. Clerici, "Two-photon quantum interference and entanglement at 2.1 µm," Sci. Adv. 6, eaay5195 (2020)
» Products Cited: PDA10DT(-EC)

M. Kutas, B. Haase, P. Bickert, F. Riexinger, D. Molter, and G. von Freymann, "Terahertz quantum sensing," Sci. Adv. 6, eaaz8065 (2020)
» Products Cited: CS2100M-USB

2019

 

S. Ecker, F. Bouchard, L. Bulla, F. Brandt, O. Kohout, F. Steinlechner, R. Fickler, M. Malik, Y. Guryanova, R. Ursin, and M. Huber, "Overcoming Noise in Entanglement Distribution," Phys. Rev. X 9, 041042 (2019)
» Products Cited: DET10A(/M)

2018

 

J.A. Zielinska and M.W. Mitchell, "Atom-resonant squeezed light from a tunable monolithic ppRKTP parametric amplifier," Opt. Lett. 43, 643-646 (2018)
» Products Cited: PDB450A

S. Wei, D. Wang, J. Lin, and X. Yuan., "Demonstration of orbital angular momentum channel healing using a Fabry-Pérot cavity," Opto-Electron. Adv. 1, 180006 (2018)
» Products Cited: SA200-5B, SA201(-EC), MDT694B

P.-J. Tsai, and Y.-C. Chen, "Ultrabright, narrow-band photon-pair source for atomic quantum memories," Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 034005 (2018)
» Products Cited: SA200-8B, PDA100A(-EC)

S. Tamura, K. Ikeda, K. Okamura, K. Yoshii, F.-L. Hong, T. Horikiri, and H. Kosaka, "Two-step frequency conversion for connecting distant quantum memories by transmission through an optical fiber," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57, 062801 (2018)
» Products Cited: HL63142DG

P. Vernaz-Gris, K. Huang, M. Cao, A.S. Sheremet, and J. Laurat, "Highly-efficient quantum memory for polarization qubits in a spatially-multiplexed cold atomic ensemble," Nat. Commun. 9, 363 (2018)
» Products Cited: BD40

A. Dréau, A. Tchebotareva, A. El Mahdaoui, C. Bonato, and R. Hanson, "Quantum Frequency Conversion of Single Photons from a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond to Telecommunication Wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Appl. 9, 064031 (2018)
» Products Cited: S122C

2017

 

B. Docters, J. Wrachtrup, and I. Gerhardt, "Two Step Excitation in Hot Atomic Sodium Vapor," Sci. Rep. 7, 11760 (2017)
» Products Cited: C220TME-A, PM200, S130C, PDA36A(-EC)

K.I. Gerasimov, M.M. Minnegaliev, S.A. Moissev, R.V. Urmancheev, T. Chanelière, and A. Louchet-Chauvet, "Quantum memory in an orthogonal geometry of silenced echo retrieval," Opt. Spectrosc. 123, 211-216 (2017)
» Products Cited: DET100A(/M), APD102A(/M)

2016

 

A. Kinos, Q. Li, L. Rippe, and S. Kröll, "Development and characterization of high suppression and high étendue narrowband spectral filters," Appl. Opt. 55, 10442-10448 (2016)
» Products Cited: PDB150A

S.L. Portalupi, M. Widmann, C. Nawrath, M. Jetter, P. Michler, J. Wrachtup, and I. Gerhardt, "Simultaneous Faraday filtering of the Mollow triplet sidebands with the Cs-D1 clock transition," Nat. Commun. 7, 13632 (2016)
» Products Cited: GT10-B

R.A. Jensen, I.-C. Huang, O. Chen, J.T. Choy, T.S. Bischof, M. Loncar, and M.G. Bawendi, "Optical Trapping and Two-Photon Excitation of Colloidal Quantum Dots Using Bowtie Apertures," ACS Photonics 3 (3), 423-427, (2016)
» Products Cited: MAX301(/M), DET50B(/M)

B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, J.P. Hadden, M. Sakakura, A. Chiappini, T.T. Fernandez, S. Longhi, O. Jedrkiewicz, Y. Shimotsuma, L. Criante, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, M. Ferrari, K. Miura, R. Ramponi, P.E. Barclay, and S.M. Eaton, "Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing," Sci. Rep. 6, 35566 (2016)
» Products Cited: MBT401D(/M), S1FC808, TLS001-635

A. Sipahigil, R.E. Evans, D.D. Sukachev, M.J. Burek, J. Borregaard, M.K. Bhaskar, C.T. Nguyen, J.L. Pacheco, H.A. Atikian, C. Meuwly, R.M. Camacho, F. Jelezko, E. Bielejec, H. Park, M. Loncar, and M.D. Lukin, "An integrated diamond nanophotonics platform for quantum-optical networks," Science 354, 847-850 (2016)
» Products Cited: PDA100A(-EC), LCC3112H/M, LP705-SF15, GVS012(/M)

2014

 

I.I. Vlasov, A.A. Shiryaev, T. Rendler, S. Steinert, S.-Y. Lee, D. Antonov, M. Vörös, F. Jelezko, A.V. Fisenko, L.F. Semjonova, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, O.I. Lebedev, I. Sildos, P.R. Hemmer, V.I. Konov, A. Gali and J. Wrachtrup, "Molecular-sized fluorescent nanodiamonds," Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 54-58 (2014)
» Products Cited: HL6548FG, HL6738MG

2013

 

M. Sabooni, S. Tornibue Kometa, A. Thuresson, S. Kröll, and L. Rippe, "Cavity-enhanced storage—preparing for high-efficiency quantum memories," New J. Phys. 15, 035025 (2013)
» Products Cited: PDB150A

2012

 

K.F. Reim, J. Nunn, X.-M. Jin, P.S. Michelberger, T.F.M. Champion, D.G. England, K.C. Lee, W.S. Kolthammer, N.K. Langford, and I.A. Walmsley, "Multipulse Addressing of a Raman Quantum Memory: Configurable Beam Splitting and Efficient Readout," Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 263602 (2012)
» Products Cited: APD210

2009

 

A. Walther, A. Amari, S. Kröll, and A. Kalachev, "Experimental superradiance and slow-light effects for quantum memories," Phys. Rev. A 80, 012317 (2009)
» Products Cited: PDB150A


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