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Photomultiplier Modules (PMTs)


  • Several Models Cover 185 - 920 nm Wavelength Range
  • Alkali and GaAsP Photocathodes Available
  • SM1 or C-Mount Threads for Filters or Lens Tubes
  • Models Designed for Single- and Multi-Channel
    Detection

PMM02

280 - 850 nm
Multialkali, Standalone

PMT2101

300 - 720 nm
GaAsP, Standalone

PMTSS2

185 - 900 nm
Multialkali, Two Channels

Related Items


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PMT Comparison Graph
Click to Enlarge

Click for Logarithmic Plot
This graph shows typical radiant sensitivity curves for our PMT modules. The PMT2101(/M) and PMT2102 provide the highest radiant sensitivity, but are also the most susceptible to degradation from high intensity illumination. The PMM01, PMM02, PMT1001(/M), PMT1002, PMT2101(/M) and PMT2102 feature built-in transimpedance amplifiers for simpler integration with setups. The PMM01, PMM02, PMT1001(/M), and PMT2101(/M) also offer internal SM1 threads and four 4-40 taps for direct compatibility with our SM1 lens tubes and 30 mm cage system.

Features

  • Bialkali, Multialkali, and GaAsP Detectors for Wavelengths from 185 nm to 920 nm
  • Typical Radiant Sensitivities from 67 mA/W to >176 mA/W (See Graph to the Right)
  • Various Mounting Features (See Selection Guide Tab)
    • SM1 (1.035"-40) or C-Mount (1.00"-32) Threads for Lens Tubes or Filters
    • 8-32 or 14"-20 (M6) Tapped Holes for Post Mounting
    • 1/4" (M6) Counterbored Slots for Table Mounting
    • Four 4-40 Taps for 30 mm Cage System
  • Some Models Offer Built-In Transimpedance Amplifiers
  • PMTSS2 Modules are Designed for Building Expandable Multi-Channel Imaging Setups
  • Control Software for Windows® 7 (64-Bit) Computers (See Software Tab)

Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are used to detect faint optical signals from weakly emitting sources. Compared to avalanche photodetectors (APDs), they offer significantly larger active areas, making them ideal for capturing signals that may be diverging due to scatter or nonlinear optical effects. These PMTs are controlled with an included software package designed for use with 64-Bit Windows® 7 computers, which provides a GUI for adjusting gain, output offset voltage, and bandwidth. This software package includes .NET, C++, and LabVIEW drivers. 

Thorlabs offers PMTs utilizing alkali or GaAsP detector elements, which offer sensitivity in the UV, visible, and NIR. Their performance can be quantified by their quantum efficiency (in %), which describes how many incident photons are converted to photoelectrons. The quantum efficiency is closely related to the radiant sensitivity (in mA/W), as shown in the equation in footnote b below. Radiant sensitivity curves for Thorlabs' PMTs are given in the graph to the right.

In order to generate high internal gain, the electrons initially generated at the PMT's photocathode are accelerated by a high-voltage potential, on the order of kV. This potential causes the electrons to strike several dynodes that generate secondary electrons. The photocurrent that has accumulated after the final dynode stage represents the amplified signal and is collected by an anode. (See the PMT Tutorial tab for more details.) All of our PMT modules feature built-in high-voltage circuitry that eliminates the need for a standalone high-voltage source, reducing the package's footprint and risk of electric shock.

The photocurrent collected at the anode is typically sent into a transimpedance amplifier that converts the current into a voltage and provides additional amplification. Our PMM01, PMM02, PMT1001(/M), PMT1002, PMT2101(/M), and PMT2102 modules include a built-in transimpedance amplifier, allowing them to be connected directly to lab equipment that requires voltage signals. In contrast, the PMTSS, PMTSS2, and PMTSS2-SCM have no built-in amplifier. They are compatible with our TIA60 Transimpedance Amplifier, as well as other transimpedance amplifiers, which are available separately.

PMT Comparisona Standalone Multi-Channel
Item # PMM01 PMM02 PMTSS PMT1001(/M)
PMT1002
PMT2101(/M)
PMT2102
PMTSS2
PMTSS2-SCM
Photocathode Material Bialkali Multialkali Multialkali Multialkali GaAsP Multialkali
Wavelength Range 280 - 630 nm 280 - 850 nm 185 - 900 nm 230 - 920 nm 300 - 720 nm 185 - 900 nm
Radiant Sensitivityb (Typ.)
86 mA/W (at 400 nm) 67 mA/W (at 420 nm) 105 mA/W (at 450 nm) 78 mA/W (at 630 nm) 176 mA/W (at 550 nm) 105 mA/W (at 450 nm)
Photocathode
Active Area
Ø22 mm Ø22 mm 3.7 mm × 13.0 mm
(H × V)
Ø8 mm Ø5 mm 3.7 mm × 13.0 mm
(H × V)
Transimpedance Amplifier Yes Yes Not Included
(Compatible with TIA60)
Yes Yes Not Included
(Compatible with TIA60)
  • Complete specifications are available in the Specs tab.
  • The graph above compares the radiant sensitivity curves of all our PMTs. Radiant sensitivity (RS) is related to quantum efficiency (QE) by the following expression:
    QE Formula

Standalone Alkali PMTs

Item # PMM01 PMM02 PMTSS PMT1001(/M) PMT1002
Detector Specifications
Wavelength Range 280 - 630 nm 280 - 850 nm 185 - 900 nm 230 - 920 nm
Peak Wavelength (λp) 400 nm 420 nm 450 nm 630 nm
Radiant Sensitivity at λpa (Typ.)
86 mA/W 67 mA/W 105 mA/W 78 mA/W
Quantum Efficiency at λpa
(Calculated from Radiant Sensitivity)
28% 21% >28% >15%
PMT Gain (Max) 7.1 × 106 3.1 × 106 >1.0 × 107
See Graphs Tab for PMT Gain vs. Control Voltage
>3.0 × 106
See Graphs Tab for PMT Gain vs. Control Voltage
HV Control Voltage (Max) 0 V to +1.8 Vb +0.25 V to +1.00 V (Recommended)
+0.25 V to +1.20 V (Maxc)
+0.50 V to +1.10 V
Software Controlled
Control Voltage Connector 2.5 mm Mono Plug M8 x 1 Power Connector USB Mini
PMT Voltage 0 V to -1800 Vb,d +250 V to +1000 V (Recommended)
+250 V to +1200 V (Maxc)
+500 V to +1100 V
Photocathode Active Area Ø22 mm 3.7 mm × 13.0 mm (H × V) Ø8 mm
Dark Currente 0.3 - 3 nA (at 20 °C) 0.5 - 5 nA (at 20 °C) 2 nA (Typ.)
10 nA (Max)
10 nA (Typ.)
100 nA (Max)
Dark Count Ratee
100 s-1 (at 20 °C) 3000 s-1 (at 20 °C) - -
Warm-Up Time Before Applying Control Voltagee <10 s 30 to 60 Minutes 30 to 60 Minutes
Anode Current (Max)f 100 µA 10 µA 100 µA
Rise and Fall Time 15 µs 1.4 ns 0.57 ns (Rise)g
Photocathode Type Bialkali Multialkali (S20) Multialkali Multialkali
Photocathode Geometry Head On Side On Head On
Window Borosilicate, Plano-Concave (n = 1.49) UV-Transmitting Glass
(n = 1.48)
Borosilicate, Flat Window
(n = 1.487)
Transimpedance Amplifier Specifications
Transimpedance Gain High Z: 1 × 106 V/A
50 Ω: 5 × 105 V/A
No Amplifier Included 11000 +1000 / -500 V/A
Amplifier Bandwidth (at 6 dB)h DC to 20 kHz N/A Software Configurable
DC to 80 MHz, 2.5 MHz, or 250 kHz
Amplifier Noise (Typ.) 2 mV (RMS) N/A 5.8 pA / √Hz
(Total Input Noise at DC to 80 MHz Bandwidth)
6.5 pA / √Hz
(Input Current Noise at 1 MHz, Cin = 4 pF)
Amplifier Offset (Typ.) 1 mV N/A ±103 µV / °Ch
Output Signalj
Output Voltage 0 - 10 V (High Z)
0 - 5 V (50 Ω)
N/A ±1.5 V (50 Ω)
Output Current N/A 10 µA (Max) N/A
Connector SMA BNC SMA
Physical Specifications
Module Dimensions 3.66" × 1.60" × 2.46"
(92.9 mm × 40.6 mm × 62.5 mm)
5.20" × 1.26" × 2.50"
(132.0 × 32.1 × 63.5 mm)
3.43” × 1.60” × 2.10”
(87.2 mm × 40.6 mm × 53.5 mm)
3.32" × 1.35" × 1.95"
(84.4 mm × 34.3 mm × 49.6 mm)
Power Input
+12 V Pin: 40 mA Max, +12 V to +15 V
-12 V Pin: 10 mA Max, -12 V to -15 V
15 VDC, 7 mA Max 5 VDC
+4.5 V to +5.5 V
350 mA Typ., 500 mA Max
Included Power Supply ±12 VDC
(115/230 VAC, 50 - 60 Hz, Switchable)k
- -
Operating Temperature 5 to 55 °C 15 to 40 °C 5 to 50 °C
Storage Temperature -40 to 55 °C -20 to 50 °C -20 to 50 °C
Module Weight
236 g (0.52 lb) 0.3 kg (0.66 lb) 300 g (0.66 lb)
Mounting Options
Internal SM1 Threads Yes (In Front of Window) Yes (In Front of Window) - Yes (In Front of Window) -
Internal C-Mount Threads - - Yes (In Front of Window) - Yes (In Front of Window)
Mounting Holes Three 8-32 Taps
(8-32 to M4 Adapter Included)
Three 8-32 Taps
(8-32 to M4 Adapter Included)
- 1/4"-20 (M6) Tap -
30 mm Cage System Yes (Four 4-40 Taps) Yes (Four 4-40 Taps) - Yes (Four 4-40 Taps) -
  • Radiant Sensitivity (RS) is related to quantum efficiency (QE) by the following expression:
    QE Formula
  • Subject to not exceeding the rated gain of the PMT.
  • Although the PMT may be operated up to a maximum control voltage of +1.20 V, operation beyond the recommended control voltage range may decrease the PMT's operational lifetime.
  • This a calculated value using the following formula: PMT Voltage = -1000 × Tube Control Voltage.
  • The dark current rate and dark count specifications are valid when the PMT has been turned on in the dark, no control voltage has been applied during the specified warm-up time, and no signal has been incident during the specified warm-up time.
  • The PMT must be shielded from ambient light and the control voltage must be carefully chosen so that unexpected signal spikes do not cause the anode current to be exceeded. Exceeding the maximum anode current will irreparably damage the PMT.
  • The fall time is not specified for these PMTs.
  • The bandwidth decreases as the output signal magnitude increases.
  • DC Voltage Drift
  • The output signal should be kept below the maximum to prevent saturation. ND filters can be mounted using the SM1 or C-Mount threads in front of the window to attenuate the optical signal before it reaches the PMT.
  • A replacement power supply that supports input voltages of 100, 120, and 230 VAC is available below.

All specifications are valid at 25 °C unless otherwise stated.

GaAsP PMTs

Item # PMT2101(/M) PMT2102
Detector Specifications
Wavelength Range 300 - 720 nm
Peak Wavelength (λp) 580 nm
Radiant Sensitivitya (Typ.) 176 mA/W at 550 nm
108 mA/W at 420 nm
Quantum Efficiencya
(Calculated from
Radiant Sensitivity)
39% at 550 nm (Typical)b
32% at 420 nm (Typical)b
PMT Gain (Max) >1.0 × 106
Control Voltage +0.50 V to +0.80 V (Recommended)
+0.5 V to +1.0 V (Maxc)
Software Controlled
Control Voltage Connector USB Mini
PMT Voltage +500 V to +800 V (Recommended)
+500 V to +1000 V (Max)
Photocathode Active Area Ø5 mm
Dark Count Rated, e
6000 s-1 (at 25 °C, Typical)
18000 s-1 (at 25 °C, Maximum)
Warm-Up Time Before
Applying Control Voltagee
30 to 60 minutes (at 25 °C)
Anode Current (Max)f 500 µA
Rise Timeg 1.00 ns
Photocathode Type GaAsP
Photocathode Geometry Head On
Window Borosilicate, Flat Window
Transimpedance Amplifier Specifications
Transimpedance Gain 11000 +1000 / -500 V/A
Amplifier Bandwidth
(at 6 dB)h,i
Software Configurable
DC to 80 MHz, 2.5 MHz, or 250 kHz
Amplifier Noisei (Typ.) 5.8 pA / √Hz (Total Input Noise at DC to 80 MHz Bandwidth)
6.5 pA / √Hz (Input Current Noise at 1 MHz, Cin = 4 pF)
Amplifier DC Offset Drift (Typ.) ±103 µV / °C
Maximum Inputj ±500 μA
Output Signalk
Output Voltage ±1.5 V (50 Ω)
Output Current N/A
Connector SMA
Physical Specifications
Module Dimensions 3.43” × 1.60” × 2.10”
(87.2 × 40.6 × 53.5 mm)
3.32" × 1.35" × 1.95"
(84.4 × 34.3 × 49.6 mm
Power Input
5 VDC (+4.5 V to +5.5 V)
350 mA Typ., 500 mA Max
Operating Temperature 5 to 35 °C
Storage Temperature -20 to 50 °C
Module Weight
300 g (0.66 lb)
Mounting Options
Internal SM1 Threads Yes (In Front of Window) -
Internal C-Mount Threads - Yes (In Front of Window)
Mounting Holes 1/4"-20 (M6) Tap -
30 mm Cage System Yes (Four 4-40 Taps) -
  • Radiant Sensitivity (RS) is related to quantum efficiency (QE) by the following expression:
    QE Formula
  • The quantum efficiency can vary from PMT to PMT.
  • Although the PMT may be operated up to a maximum control voltage of +1.0 V, operation beyond the recommended control voltage range may decrease the PMT's operational lifetime.
  • Measured after 30 min of storage in darkness.
  • The dark count specification is valid when the PMT has been turned on in the dark, no control voltage has been applied during the specified warm-up time, and no signal has been incident during the specified warm-up time.
  • The PMT must be shielded from ambient light and the control voltage must be carefully chosen so that unexpected signal spikes do not cause the anode current to be exceeded. Exceeding the maximum anode current will irreparably damage the PMT.
  • Measured at +0.8 V Control Voltage, 25 °C
  • The bandwidth decreases as the output signal magnitude increases.
  • Amplifier bandwidth and equivalent input current noise are typical values, which depend on the source capacitance. To achieve the best possible bandwidth and noise performance, reduce the source capacitance by using short cables at the input of the amplifier.
  • Operation above this specification is likely to permanently damage the amplifier.
  • The output signal should be kept below the maximum to prevent saturation. ND filters can be mounted using the SM1 or C-Mount threads in front of the window to attenuate the optical signal before it reaches the PMT.

All specifications are valid at 25 °C unless otherwise stated.

Multi-Channel PMTs

Item # PMTSS2 PMTSS2-SCM
Detector Specifications
Wavelength Range 185 - 900 nm
Peak Wavelength (λp) 450 nm
Radiant Sensitivity at λpa (Typ.)
105 mA/W
Quantum Efficiency at λpa
(Calculated from
Radiant Sensitivity)
>28%
PMT Gain (Max) >1.0 × 107
See Graphs Tab for PMT Gain vs. Control Voltage
Control Voltage +0.25 V to +1.00 V (Recommended)
+0.25 V to +1.20 V (Maxb)
Control Voltage Connector M8 x 1 Power Connector
PMT Voltage +250 V to +1000 V (Recommended)
+250 V to +1200 V (Maxb)
Photocathode Active Area 3.7 mm × 13.0 mm (H × V)
Dark Currentc 2 nA (Typ.)
10 nA (Max)
Dark Count Ratec
-
Warm-Up Time Before
Applying Control Voltagec
30 to 60 Minutes
Anode Current (Max)d 10 µA
Rise and Fall Time 1.4 ns
Photocathode Type Multialkali
Photocathode Geometry Side On
Window UV-Transmitting Glass (n = 1.48)
Transimpedance Amplifier Specifications
Transimpedance Gain No Amplifier Included
Amplifier Bandwidth
(at 6 dB)e
N/A
Amplifier Noise (Typ.) N/A
Amplifier Offset (Typ.) N/A
Output Signalf
Output Voltage N/A
Output Current 10 µA (Max)
Connector BNC
Physical Specifications
Module Dimensions 10.18" × 8.09" × 3.40"
(258.5 × 205.5 × 86.4 mm)
8.09" × 2.43" × 3.40"
(205.5 × 61.8 × 86.4 mm)
Power Input
15 VDC, 7 mA Max
Operating Temperature 15 to 40 °C
Storage Temperature -20 to 50 °C
Module Weight
1.4 kg (3.08 lb) 0.9 kg (1.98 lb)
Mounting Options
Internal SM1 Threads Yes (On Input Port and
Filter Cube)
Yes (On Input Port and
Filter Cube)
Internal C-Mount Threads Yes (In Front of Windowg) Yes (In Front of Windowg)
Mounting Holes 1/4" (M6) Counterbored Slots 1/4" (M6) Counterbored Slots
30 mm Cage System - -
  • Radiant Sensitivity (RS) is related to quantum efficiency (QE) by the following expression:
    QE Formula
  • Although the PMT may be operated up to a maximum control voltage of +1.20 V, operation beyond the recommended control voltage range may decrease the PMT's operational lifetime.
  • The dark current rate and dark count specifications are valid when the PMT has been turned on in the dark, no control voltage has been applied during the specified warm-up time, and no signal has been incident during the specified warm-up time.
  • The PMT must be shielded from ambient light and the control voltage must be carefully chosen so that unexpected signal spikes do not cause the anode current to be exceeded. Exceeding the maximum anode current will irreparably damage the PMT.
  • The bandwidth decreases as the output signal magnitude increases.
  • The output signal should be kept below the maximum to prevent saturation. ND filters can be mounted using the SM1 or C-Mount threads in front of the window to attenuate the optical signal before it reaches the PMT.
  • These C-Mount threads are not accessible unless the PMT module is detached from the filter cube assembly.

All specifications are valid at 25 °C unless otherwise stated.

Radiant SensitivityClick to Enlarge
Typical Radiant Sensitivity Curves - Linear Plot

Radiant SensitivityClick to Enlarge
Typical Radiant Sensitivity Curves - Logarithmic Plot

Alkali PMTs

Relative Response
Click to Enlarge

Relative Response of PMM01 and PMM02 Modules
Gain
Click to Enlarge

Gain of PMTSS, PMTSS2, and PMTSS2-SCM Modules
Although the PMT may be operated up to a maximum control voltage of +1.20 V, operation beyond the recommended control voltage range may decrease the PMT's operational lifetime.

Amplifier Frequency Response
Click to Enlarge

Amplifier Frequency Response of PMT1001(/M) and PMT1002

Gain
Click to Enlarge

Gain of PMT1001(/M) and PMT1002

GaAsP PMTs

Amplifier Frequency Response
Click to Enlarge

Amplifier Frequency Response of PMT2101(/M) and PMT2102
Gain
Click to Enlarge

Gain of PMT2101(/M) and PMT2102
Although the PMT may be operated up to a maximum control voltage of +1.0 V, operation beyond the recommended control voltage range may decrease the PMT's operational lifetime.

Noise
Click to Enlarge

Input Current Noise Density of PMT2101(/M) and PMT2102

Standalone Alkali PMTs

PMM01 and PMM02 Dimensions
Click to Enlarge
PMM01 and PMM02 Mechanical Drawing

Click to Enlarge

PMTSS Mechanical Drawing
PMT1001(/M) Dimensions
Click to Enlarge
PMT1001(/M) Mechanical Drawing

PMT1002 Dimensions
Click to Enlarge

PMT1002 Mechanical Drawing

GaAsP PMTs

PMT2101(/M) Dimensions
Click to Enlarge
PMT2101(/M) Mechanical Drawing
PMT2102 Dimensions
Click to Enlarge

PMT2102 Mechanical Drawing


PMTs for Multi-Channel Detection


Click to Enlarge
PMTSS2 Mechanical Drawing


Click to Enlarge

PMTSS2-SCM Mechanical Drawing

PMM01 and PMM02 Modules

These PMT modules ship with a Y-cable for control voltage and power (6-pin Hirose to 2.5 mm mono jack and 3-pin Lumberg power connector). This cable is pictured in the Shipping List tab.

Connectors on PMT Module

Power Connector

6-Pin Hirose

HiRose

Pin Assignment
1 Power Supply Input (+12 VDC to +15 VDC)
2 Power Supply Input (-12 VDC to -15 VDC)
3 0 V
4 0 V
5 No Connection
6 Control Voltage
(0 V to +1.25 V)

Output Signal

Female SMA

 SMA Female

Output Voltage:
0 - 5 V (50 Ω)
0 - 10 V (High Z)

Connectors on Y-Cable

Power Supply Connection

3-Pin Lumberg RKMC-3

3-Pin Lumberg

Pin Assignment
1 Power Supply Input (+12 VDC to +15 VDC)
2 Ground
3 Power Supply Input (-12 VDC to -15 VDC)

Control Voltage

2.5 mm Mono Plug

3-Pin Lumberg

Tip: Ground
Barrel: 0 to +1.25 VDC


PMT1001(/M), PMT1002, PMT2101(/M), and PMT2102 Modules

These PMT modules ship with a SMA to SMB cable and a Mini USB to USB A cable. These cables are pictured in the Shipping List tab.

Power Connector

USB Mini

 USB Mini

Input Voltage:
+0.50 V to +1.10 V [PMT1001(/M) and PMT1002]
+0.50 V to +0.80 V
[Recommended Range for PMT2101(/M) and PMT2102]

Output Signal

Female SMA

 SMA Female

Output Voltage:
±1.5 V (50 Ω)


PMTSS, PMTSS2, and PMTSS2-SCM Modules

These PMT modules ship with a male M8 x 1 connector with colored wire leads. This connector is pictured in the Shipping List tab.

Power Connector

Female M8 x 1

 M8 x 1 Connector

Pin Assignment Wire Colora
1 Power Supply Input (+15 VDC) Brown
2 Control Voltage
(Recommended: +0.25 V to +1.00 V;
Maxb: +0.25 V to +1.20 V)
White
3 No Connection Blue
4 Power Supply Return (Ground) Black
  • On Included Cable
  • Although the PMT may be operated up to a maximum control voltage of +1.20 V, operation beyond the recommended control voltage range may decrease the PMT's operational lifetime.

Output Signal

BNC Female

BNC Connector

Output Current: 10 µA (Max)

PMM01 and PMM02 Accessories
Click to Enlarge

PMM01 and PMM02 Contents

PMM01 and PMM02

Item #'s PMM01 and PMM02 consist of:

  • PMT Module
  • SM1RR Retaining Ring
  • AS4M8E 8-32 to M4 Thread Adapter
  • Y-Cable for Control Voltage and Power (6-pin Hirose to 2.5 mm Mono Jack and 3-pin Lumberg
    Power Connector)
  • 2.5 mm Mono Plug
  • ±12 V Power Supply with Region Specific Power Cord

PMT1001(/M) and Accessories
Click to Enlarge

PMT1001(/M) Contents

PMT1001(/M)

Item # PMT1001(/M) consists of:

  • PMT Module
  • USB 2.0 Cable (A to Mini)
  • SMA to SMB Cable
  • SM1 End Cap

PMT1002 and Accessories
Click to Enlarge

PMT1002 Contents

PMT1002

Item # PMT1002 consists of:

  • PMT Module
  • USB 2.0 Cable (A to Mini)
  • SMA to SMB Cable
  • C-Mount Lens Cap (Replacement Item # CMCP2)

PMTSS Accessories
Click to Enlarge

PMTSS Contents

PMTSS

Item # PMTSS consists of:

  • PMT Module
  • Male M8 x 1 Connector with Colored Wire Leads
  • M8 x 1 Extension Cord
  • C-Mount Cap (Replacement Item # CMCP2)

PMT2101(/M) and Accessories
Click to Enlarge

PMT2101(/M) Contents

PMT2101(/M)

Item # PMT2101(/M) consists of:

  • PMT Module
  • USB 2.0 Cable (A to Mini)
  • SMA to SMB Cable
  • SM1 End Cap

PMT2102 and Accessories
Click to Enlarge

PMT2102 Contents

PMT2102

Item # PMT2102 consists of:

  • PMT Module
  • USB 2.0 Cable (A to Mini)
  • SMA to SMB Cable
  • C-Mount Lens Cap (Replacement Item # CMCP2)

PMTSS2 Accessories
Click to Enlarge

PMTSS2 Contents

PMTSS2

Item # PMTSS2 consists of:

  • Two Detachable PMT Modules
  • DFM1T1 Filter Cube Top
  • Mechanical Housing with SMA905-Terminated Fiber Collimation Assembly and Male Dovetail for
    PMTSS2-SCM Add-On Module
  • Two Male M8 x 1 Connectors with Colored Wire Leads
  • Two M8 x 1 Extension Cords
  • Ø910 µm Core, 0.22 NA, SMA905-Terminated Fiber Patch Cable for 250 - 1200 nm

PMM01 and PMM02 Accessories
Click to Enlarge

PMTSS2-SCM Contents

PMTSS2-SCM

Item # PMTSS2-SCM consists of:

  • Detachable PMT Module
  • DFM1T1 Filter Cube Top
  • Mechanical Housing with Female Dovetail for the PMTSS2 Module and Male Dovetail for Additional
    PMTSS2-SCM Modules
  • Male M8 x 1 Connector with Colored Wire Leads
  • M8 x 1 Extension Cord

The PMT1001(/M), PMT1002, PMT2101(/M), and PMT2102 standalone PMTs can be controlled using Thorlabs' software. The software download page below offers a link to the GUI interface as well as a LabVIEW™ software development kit (SDK) to allow these PMTs to be controlled using custom imaging software. The most recent firmware for these PMTs is available as well.

Software

Version 3.2 (February 9, 2018)

This software package for the PMT1001(/M), PMT1002, PMT2101(/M), and PMT2102 contains the installation files for the GUI interface, SDK, and most recent firmware. The software is compatible with Windows® 7 (64-bit) systems.

Software Download

Choosing a Photomultiplier Tube for Your Application

Introduction
Since the first commercial photomultiplier tube (PMT) was developed in the early 1940s, it has remained the detector of choice for experiments requiring fast response times and high sensitivity. Today, the PMT is a staple for research in many fields including analytical chemistry, particle physics, medical imaging, industrial process control, astronomy, and atomic and molecular physics. This tutorial provides introductory material for the principle of operation and key specifications to consider when choosing a PMT for a given application. 

Basic Principle of Operation
Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are sensitive, high-gain devices that provide a current output that is proportional to the incident light. The PMT consists of a glass vacuum tube that houses a photoemissive material called a photocathode, 8 - 14 secondary emitting electrodes called dynodes, and a collection electrode called an anode. If a photon with sufficiently high energy (i.e. more energy than the binding energy of the photocathode material) is incident on the photocathode, it is absorbed, and an electron is released in accordance with the photoelectric effect. Since the first dynode is maintained at a higher potential than the cathode (thereby creating a potential difference between these two elements), the ejected electron will accelerate toward the dynode and crash into it, releasing secondary electrons. Typically, 3 - 5 secondary electrons are released during this process. Each of these 3 - 5 electrons is then in turn accelerated toward and crashes into the second dynode, thereby releasing 3 - 5 more electrons. This process continues through the entire dynode chain providing an electron gain of 3 - 5. Typically, each dynode is maintained at a potential that is 100 - 200 V higher than the previous one. At the end of the dynode chain, the electrons are collected by the anode and a current pulse is output. However, to read that pulse, the current usually needs to be converted to a voltage; the simplest way to do this is to connect a low load resistance across the anode and ground. Thorlabs' PMM01 and PMM02 modules use a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) to convert the nA- or µA-scale current output by the anode to a voltage in the mV or V range, respectively. In comparison, our PMTSS, PMTSS2, and PMTSS2-SCM modules do not include a TIA.

For example, if a PMT consists of 8 dynodes as shown in the figure below and each electron is able to produce 4 secondary electrons, the total current amplification after traveling through the dynode chain will be 48 ≈ 66,000. Each photoelectron for this example PMT produces a charge avalanche at the anode of Q = 48e. The corresponding voltage pulse is V = Q/C = 48e /C where C is the capacitance of the anode (including connections). If the capacitance is 5 pF, the output voltage pulse will be 2.1 mV.

PMT dynode chain figure

Spectral Response
When choosing a PMT for a given application, the photocathode material should be matched to the intended application. Generally, the long-wavelength cutoff is determined by the photocathode, while the window material determines the short-wavelength cutoff. PMTs are manufactured for wavelengths from the deep UV through the infrared. However, since the photocathode is responsible for converting incident photons into electrons, the efficiency with which it does this for the wavelength of interest is of utmost importance. There are a variety of materials used for photocathodes, each with a different work function and each intended for use in a different spectral range.

Quantum Efficiency (QE) is a specification that is usually expressed as a percentage and is associated with the PMTs ability to convert incident photons into detectable electrons. For instance, a QE value of 20% means that one in every five photons that strike the photocathode will produce a photoelectron. For photon counting, it is desirable to have a PMT with a high QE value. Since QE is dependent upon wavelength, it is important to choose a PMT with the best quantum efficiency over the wavelength range of interest. It should be noted that photocathodes for the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum typically have QE values that are less than 30%.

The QE of a PMT can be quickly calculated from its spectral response plot (see the Graphs tab) by using the following equation:

Quantum Efficiency Equation

where S is the radiant sensitivity in units of A/W and λ is the wavelength in nm.

Geometries
PMTs are available primarily with two different geometries: head-on (i.e. the photocathode is located at either end of the vacuum tube) and side-on (i.e. the photocathode element is located on the side of the vacuum tube). Head-on PMTs have semitransparent photocathodes and are characterized by large collection surfaces, better spatial uniformity, and better performance in the blue and green spectral regions. For applications requiring a wide spectral response, such as spectroscopy, the head-on geometry is preferable. In contrast, side-on PMTs have opaque photocathodes and are preferable for applications in the UV and IR. This configuration tends to be less expensive than head-on and is widely used in spectrometers and for applications requiring efficient optical coupling and high QE such as scintillation counting.

The 8 - 14 secondary emitting electrodes (i.e., dynodes) are often arranged in one of two configurations: linear or circular. Linear dynode arrays (such as the one shown in the figure above) are popular due to their fast time response, good time resolution, and excellent pulse linearity. The circular cage-type array is found on all side-on PMTs and some head-on PMTs. This configuration is compact and offers fast response times.

Gain
PMTs are unique because they are capable of amplifying very weak signals produced by photocathodes to detectable levels above the readout circuitry noise without introducing substantial noise. In a PMT, the dynodes are responsible for producing this amplification, which is referred to as gain. Gain is highly dependent on the voltage being applied. PMTs can operate well above the manufacturer's stated high voltage recommendation, yielding gains that are 10 - 100 times above spec; this generally has no detrimental affects to the PMT if the anode current is kept well below the rated value.

Dark Current
Ideally, all of the signal produced by a photocathode would be due to current generated by light incident on the tube. However, in reality, PMTs will produce currents regardless of whether light is present. The signal that results in the absence of light is known as dark current, and it effectively degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of the PMT. Dark current is due mainly to the thermionic emission of electrons from the photocathode and first few dynodes but with far smaller contributions from cosmic rays and radioactive decay. In general, tubes designed for use in the red part of the spectrum will exhibit more dark current than others due to the lower binding energy of red-sensitive photocathodes. If it is assumed that the primary source of dark current is thermionic emission from the photocathode, the dark count rate is given by:

Dark Counts Equation

Since thermionic emission depends highly on the photocathode's temperature and work function, cooling a PMT will greatly reduce dark current counts. By purchasing a PMT equipped with a thermoelectric cooler and using it to cool the PMT from 20 °C to 0 °C, the dark current will be reduced by a factor of ~10. When using a thermoelectric cooler, care should be taken to avoid condensation at the window since this moisture will reduce the amount of light incident on the photocathode. In addition, excessive cooling should be avoided, as it can actually have adverse effects. These effects include signal reduction or voltage drops across the cathode, since the resistance of the cathode film is inversely proportional to the temperature.

Rise Time
For experiments demanding high time resolution, short rise times are a must. Anode pulse rise time is the most commonly specified time response characteristic for a PMT and is defined as the time required for the output of the PMT to rise from 10% to 90% of its peak amplitude when the photocathode is fully illuminated. Our PMTs' rise times are listed in the Specs tab.

Ultimately, the pulse rise time is determined by the spread in transit times for the different electrons. These times vary for several reasons. First, the initial velocities of secondary electrons will vary because they are released from different depths within the dynode material. Some electrons will have no initial energy when leaving the dynode whereas other will have a non-zero initial energy; hence, the latter arrive at the next dynode in a shorter time period. In addition to the variation in initial ejected electron speed, transit time spread is also caused by electron path length variations. Due to these effects, the rise time of an anode pulse will decrease with increasing voltage as V-1/2.

Other Considerations
There are several other important considerations. First, choose the electronics that will be used with the PMT carefully. Small changes in the high voltage applied across the cathode and anode can dramatically change the output. Second, the lab environment can also affect the performance of the PMT. Changes in temperature and humidity as well as the presence of vibrations all negatively affect tube operation. Finally, the tube's housing is of importance; not only does it shield the tube from external and extraneous light, but it can also reduce the effects of external magnetic fields. Magnetic fields of a few gauss can greatly reduce the gain, but these adverse affects can be minimized by creating a magnetic shield from a high permeability material.


Posted Comments:
trose  (posted 2018-10-06 10:15:32.54)
We are having a lot of issues with PMT tripping of our PMT2100. As far as I understand this is due to the adjustable secondary amp trip circuit - not the 50uA primary trip threshold of the PMT. Would it be possible that you expose the VOLTage[:DC]:PROTection commands (Appendix A) in a future version of the PMT control software? It would be extremely helpful for us to fine-tune trip levels, switch off the protection etc. I am aware that this is a safety feature that is potentially dangerous - I also know that we can set these values ourselves using the Keysight IO libraries. It would be more convenient to have this in your software, though. Also: What is the Voltage Level you currently use for the PMT2100 trip circuit? As far as I can see there is no way to read this out currently. Across which range would you suggest to change these values? Tobias Rose
llamb  (posted 2018-10-23 08:29:44.0)
Hello Tobias, thank you for your feedback. Generally, the trip circuit prevents the PMT from overexposure, so we do not recommend removing it, nor is it removable from the PMT2100 series specifically because of their compact size. For the PMT2100, we factory-set the secondary trip circuit to the max level and have commented out the code on the firmware that allows adjustment, so these are not adjustable nor able to be increased. This secondary circuit could in principle allow you to adjust the trip level below the primary 50 uA trip level, but this primary trip level is actually the limiting factor for the PMT. Our secondary amplifier circuit does not limit the trip level. We could potentially quote these same PMTs without the trip circuit as custom products, though they would need to be new purchases. I will reach out to you directly to discuss further.
htu  (posted 2018-10-05 11:20:56.813)
PMT2101 is similar to Hamamatsu H7422-40, with an notable exception that the cooling fan is absent, so that the PMT is more compact. My question is: has Thorlabs done comprehensive test to justify that this cooling fan is not needed (even for long-term operation)?
YLohia  (posted 2018-10-17 12:30:38.0)
Hello, thank you for contacting Thorlabs. The PMT2101 is actually equivalent to Hamamatsu H10770PA-40, which does not have active cooling either. The requirement of the cooling fan/TEC depends on your specific application and is not a universal necessity. For applications that do not require superior long-term stability and extremely high sensitivity, the PMT2101 is probably sufficient.
jos.castelein  (posted 2018-05-01 15:55:33.387)
Can you please provide me help with the installation of the PMT1001 drivers for Labview. Regards, Jos Castelein
YLohia  (posted 2018-05-01 12:07:02.0)
Hello Jos, I will reach out to you directly to troubleshoot your issues.
kuw4214  (posted 2017-08-07 20:24:11.97)
Dear Sir/Madam This is Ui-Whan,Kim in South Korea I Bought five set of PMTSS and TIA60 for measurement of OH signal. But today I figure out that I dont have proper power. Please let me know the proper power model number for each products that I bought . Then I will buy immediately for my experiment. Please contact by an email. Thank you very much.
tfrisch  (posted 2017-09-05 04:29:59.0)
Hello, thank you for contacting Thorlabs. PMTSS requires a power supply with 15VDC which limits the supply current to no more than 7mA. I will reach out to you directly since we do not offer such a power supply in our catalog at this time.
pwyen  (posted 2016-12-08 10:47:44.503)
Hi, this is PW from Taiwan. I can't fine the figure of the control gain voltage with the PMM01 control gain. Could you kindly send me that figure? Thank you.
tfrisch  (posted 2016-12-15 01:22:31.0)
Hello, thank you for contacting Thorlabs. Please reference page 5 of the manual here: https://www.thorlabs.com/drawings/1de4aa08f64cd423-1D709DCD-5056-0103-792BFB6CE1C63899/PMM01-Manual.pdf
lleclair  (posted 2016-08-05 06:35:37.237)
It would be very useful to me if I could do single photon counting/timing. But with a rise time of 15 µs that's out of questions. Do you offer one without the amplifier so I can attach my own high speed amp for time-of-flight measurements? What is the rise time straight out of the PMT?
devin.pugh-thomas  (posted 2015-09-15 15:31:52.85)
Can you provide a recommended variable power supply for use with the PMM02?
besembeson  (posted 2015-10-01 11:45:57.0)
Response from Bweh at Thorlabs USA: Any basic adjustable power supply will work, 0 - 1.25VDc, <1mA. Many common laboratory variable power supplies will work too. You can also make one, by using, for example another LDS1212 (power supply that is supplied with PM tube), add suitable potentiometer and resistor in series (between +12V and ground) to scale the voltage down to 0-2V and limit current to 1mA.
ribou  (posted 2015-04-14 14:42:50.4)
I could not found on your description of the pmm01 the time rise of the anode, neither the electron transit time. I would be grateful if you could send the information to me. Thanks
jlow  (posted 2015-04-16 02:58:43.0)
Response from Jeremy at Thorlabs: The response time for the PMM01 and PMM02 PMT are limited by the amplifier used. The rise and fall time is about 15µs, which is orders of magnitude higher than the anode rise time and electron transit time. I will contact you directly to discuss more about this.
johanna.tragardh  (posted 2015-02-12 17:19:39.533)
What length should the 2.5 mm Mono plug controlling the HV for the PMT PMM01 have? If it is not a standard length - do you sell this as a spare part? Thanks.
cdaly  (posted 2015-02-24 03:58:54.0)
Response from Chris at Thorlabs: The required 2.5mm mono plug will be a standard length, 11.0mm overall if I am not mistaken. A spare male 2.5mm mono connector is included so that a third part power supply can easily be made compatible.
iec_cortesm  (posted 2013-05-07 19:42:31.093)
one year ago I bought a PMT PMM02, unfortunately my +/-12V power supply doesn't work anymore... I try to use a conventional power supply and plug this in the Hirose-3 conector in the interface conector wire, in this conector there are labeled 3 and 1 two pines, can you tell me which pin is for each voltaje?
jlow  (posted 2013-08-02 15:58:00.0)
Response from Jeremy at Thorlabs: Pin 1 should be for +12V and pin 3 should be for -12V. The other pin is ground.
jlow  (posted 2012-07-31 14:30:00.0)
A response from Jeremy at Thorlabs: Most basic adjustable source will work fine. The 100uA mentioned in the manual is just the input current spec for the device. Basically the supply required needs to be able to supply 100uA of current. This is more of a control line than a supply line. This voltage is used to set the level of the tube bias voltage. The reason the supply is specified this way is so that a potentiometer can be used to control this signal line. You want to choose your potentiometer resistances so that the 100uA load current does not significantly affect the voltage setting. The current through the pot. should be 10x or more larger than the 100uA. Below is an example. Ex. - Use a resistor and potentiometer in series between the +12V PMM001 supply and the ground. The wiper would be connected to the control line. The resistor is used to scale the range of the control pot over 0 – 2V. If we set the resistor to 10kOhms and the pot to 2kOhms (12kOhm total resistance) the current will be 12V/12kOhms or 1mA. This is much larger than the 100uA input current so there should be a minimal effect on the input voltage due to the resistive network. Other supplies that can be used are lab bench top adjustable power supplies, computer controlled DAQ cards, etc.
jb693  (posted 2012-07-26 10:14:24.0)
I have recently purchased the PMM02 photon multiplier tube. What power supply would you recommend I purchase for the 0-1.8V tube control voltage?
tcohen  (posted 2012-06-13 12:04:00.0)
Response from Tim at Thorlabs: Thank you for your feedback. These may be dark counts, but I would like to see your scope shots to further troubleshoot. I have contacted you for more information and to continue this conversation.
wpar022  (posted 2012-06-13 01:33:56.0)
Hi there, We have been using a PMM01 and notice with on all power supplies we use with it there is a strong pulse signal at ~200Hz. Increasing PMT gain merely inverts signal around the background level. Increasing gain/optical input power results in pulse signal changing to a semi-sawtooth signal. Observed signal is independant of input signal - input pulses will not result in a corresponding output pulse. Mean signal level is ~10 mV for 50 Ohm termination, and 1-2 V for high impedance. We suspect that our power supplies (all TLabs supplied, with other equiptment, running on 230V) may be damaging the PMT, but are unable to rule out other laboratory sources. Gain control voltage does not exceed 1.4 V. Any insight you may be able to provide would be greatly appreciated!
bdada  (posted 2012-01-19 16:05:00.0)
Response from Buki at Thorlabs: Thank you for your feedback and we are sorry it took a while for you to get the PMT working. We will look into improving the instructions in our manual. We did test the PMT and found it to respond to ambient light. When we shone a high power LED against the pinhole in the black tape, the PMT responsed. We have contacted you to discuss this matter further.Please contact TechSupport@thorlabs.com if you have any questions.
ji-yi  (posted 2012-01-19 09:59:41.0)
Dear Thorlabs, we would like to make a comment on the product (pmm02) and the manual. As in my last post, we had problems on making the PMT work. It turned out the polarity of the gain control voltage should be reversed and now it is working fine. We strongly recommend the manual description and the usage tutorial to be revised. What is very confusing is that in the manual it states that the control voltage is a positive value 0-1.8v. And the cable inputting the control voltage is colored red and black. According to conventional usage of the cable color without specific notation, the black is ground and the red is positive. So what we have tried is always put a positive voltage through the red cable, which should have been the other way around to make it work. We spent a great deal of time on figuring out the problem and I am sure we will not be the last to be confused. Please be more specific on the manual description or on the website especially on how to correctly connect the gain control voltage and I strongly recommend to switch the color of the cable for gain control voltage. Thank you!
ji-yi  (posted 2012-01-17 10:31:44.0)
Dear Thorlabs, we recently purchased PMM02 and have difficulty to make it work. We used a DC power supply for the 0-1.8V gain control and a oscilloscope to monitor the voltage output(connected with a coaxes cable). The PMT inlet was sealed with a black tape with a tiny pinhole on it. We were not able to see any voltage change when we swept a flash light over the pinhole. When we increased the gain voltage to 0.6v, there is a constant DC voltage increment. But still no response to the light stimuli. Please advise how to trouble shoot. This is actually the second PMT we tested. The same problem persists. Thank you!
bdada  (posted 2011-12-26 09:30:00.0)
Response from Buki at Thorlabs: The +/-12VDC power supply is included in the PMM02 photomultiplier module. If you want to purchase extra power supplies, the part number is LDS1212-1 and they can be purchased by calling or emailing our Sales Office at 973 300 3000 or sales@thorlabs.com. We do not sell the variable power supply, but they are available in electronics stores. Please contact TechSupport@thorlabs.com if you have any questions.
lobanov  (posted 2011-12-23 10:14:58.0)
Please send a quote and delivery conditions for 1) power supply +-12V for photomultiplier module PMM02 2)Variable 0-18 VDC power supply for photomultiplier module PMM02
jjurado  (posted 2011-06-23 10:55:00.0)
Response from Javier at Thorlabs to jsmarkson: Thank you very much for contacting us. We will contact you directly to troubleshoot your application.
jsmarkson  (posted 2011-06-17 02:15:02.0)
We have purchased two PMM01 modules recently and have experienced sudden, dramatic loss of sensitivity after a few months of use. We use the modules to detect bioluminescence emitted from cells passing through a transparent glass tube. The system is very well insulated from outside light, and we adjust the initial gain (~1000V) so that readings never max out(usually they are in the 0V to 4 V range). However, after several months use, the signal suddenly drops > 100-fold, and increasing the gain to 1500V improves the signal only a few fold at best. I have heard that PMTs should have lifetimes on the scale of many years even under harsh conditions, but we are experiencing a lifetime of at most a few months in mild conditions (a warm room at 30C @ 40% relative humidity; system is powered on continuously for 1 week and then left off for 1-4 weeks). We once took apart the module and tried replacing the PMT tube itself with a similar one from a third-party supplier. This improved sensitivity for a very short while (weeks?) before we again experienced a 100-fold drop in signal. Do you know what could be causing this reliability problem and how to fix it? The reliability problem has ruined several experiments already, and we are considering switching to the much more expensive modules from Hamamatsu. We would strongly prefer to stick with ThorLabs if you can help us trace the problem and fix it.
jjurado  (posted 2011-02-14 18:03:00.0)
Response from Javier at Thorlabs to last poster: Thank you very much for submitting your inquiry. The output from our photomultiplier tubes does not require the use of specialized software for data collection and analysis. You could use a data acquisition card and a program such as LabVIEW in order to analyze the output. Please contact us at techsupport@thorlabs.com if you have any further questions.
user  (posted 2011-02-14 14:13:39.0)
Do you have any recommendations for software to analyze the PMTs output? Thanks.
apalmentieri  (posted 2010-03-03 08:36:28.0)
A response from Adam at Thorlabs to mbvincent: There are tubes available that cover the wavelengths that you are interested in. We could offer these as custom options. We do not normally offer complete modules for these tubes for a couple of reasons. Please note there are problems associated with operation of a complete system in the vacuum UV range. Either the complete detector has to be in the vacuum system or the input window of the detector has to form part of the vacuum containment system. These modules are not designed for use under vacuum are likely to outgas and breakdown. The reason outgassing and breakdown may occur is due to the electronics used. UV tubes can be operated in pulse counting mode including photon counting. The electronics required would be an amplifier discriminator and a simple timer counter.
apalmentieri  (posted 2010-02-19 15:39:10.0)
A response from Adam at Thorlabs to Melsscal: Currently, we only offer a PMT with a 15us rise time. We may be able to offer this version as a custom option, but we would like to get more information about your application. There may be other devices that would also work like our avalanche photo detectors, APD110A.
melsscal  (posted 2010-02-19 03:33:42.0)
We are looking for a rise time of at least 50ns whereas the PMM01/PMM02 offers only 15 microseconds.Can we get a custom made part with 50ns rise time ?
mbvincent  (posted 2009-12-14 13:18:47.0)
Dear Thor Labs, Do you offer a PMT module that covers 115-320 nm (wider range welcome) with a minimum 13 mm diameter active area? What associated electronics are required to operate the PMT in pulse counting mode? The application is FUV calibration of mirrors and microchannel plate detectors. The PMT will be located within a vacuum chamber (<10-6 Torr). Regards, -Mark B. Vincent Staff Research Associate IV Dept. of Applied Science 3001 Engineering III University of California One Shields Ave Davis, CA. 95616-8254 Phone: (530) 752-3747 E-mail: mbvincent@ucdavis.edu
klee  (posted 2009-12-08 17:50:36.0)
A response from Ken at Thorlabs to moweirong: The max current is very small (<1mA), so the power supply does not need much current capability. I would recommend using a linear supply. Almost any bench top supply that is adjustable from 0 to at least 1.8V will work. Something like this will work just fine: http://www.powersupplydepot.com/productview.asp?product=14600+PS
moweirong  (posted 2009-12-08 00:20:32.0)
Could you please advise what requirements for the user-provided 1.8V control voltage? how much is the max input current, the ripple noise, and the stability? any recommendations of this control voltage unit? thanks
klee  (posted 2009-12-07 18:20:55.0)
A response from Ken at Thorlabs to moweirong: A 12VDC power supply is included with the PMM02.
moweirong  (posted 2009-12-07 17:47:09.0)
Same question as melsscal. Does Thorlab provide power supply unit for hirose cable to connect the PMM02?
Tyler  (posted 2009-01-26 13:46:00.0)
A response from Tyler at Thorlabs to melsscal: The PMT modules are 120 and 230 V compatible. I updated clarified this point in the web presentation. I also changed the specs tab table to have the weight of the power supply and the weight of the PMT head listed separately. The cable needed to connect the power supply to the PMT head is included with the purchase of the PMT. If you have any further questions, please post them and thank you for helping us improve the clarity of the web presentation.
melsscal  (posted 2009-01-26 06:34:28.0)
The ordering part no. PMM01-EC(230v ) version is not shwon on website .is it available on ordering ?WHAT DOES ITS MEANS BY WEIGHT OF MODULE & TOTAL WEIGHT ?Similarly there is no part no. as PMM02-EC displayed on website.Do u have a pwoer supply /cable for the 6 pin hirose connector ?
Standalone PMTs Selection Guidea
Item # PMM01 PMM02 PMTSS PMT1001(/M) PMT1002 PMT2101(/M) PMT2102
Photo
(Click to Enlarge)
SM1 Bialkali PMT SM1 Multialkali PMT C-Mount Multialkali PMT Red Multialkali PMT Red Multialkali PMT SM1-Threaded GaAsP PMT C-Mount GaAsP PMT
Photocathode Material Bialkali Multialkali Multialkali Multialkali GaAsP
Wavelength Range 280 - 630 nm 280 - 850 nm 185 - 900 nm 230 - 920 nm 300 - 720 nm
Peak Wavelength (λp) 400 nm 420 nm 450 nm 630 nm 580 nm
Radiant Sensitivityb (Typical) 86 mA/W (at λp) 67 mA/W (at λp) 105 mA/W (at λp) 78 mA/W (at λp) 176 mA/W (at 550 nm)
PMT Gain (Max) 7.1 × 106 3.1 × 106 >1.0 × 107 >3.0 × 106 >1.0 × 106
Photocathode Active Area Ø22 mm Ø22 mm 3.7 mm × 13.0 mm
(H × V)
Ø8 mm Ø5 mm
Transimpedance Amplifier Yes Yes Not Included
(Compatible with TIA60)
Yes Yes Yes Yes
Mechanical Features Internal SM1 Threads
Three 8-32 Taps for Posts
(8-32 to M4 Adapter Included)
Four 4-40 Taps for 30 mm Cage System
Internal C-Mount Threads Internal SM1 Threads
1/4"-20 (M6) Tap for Posts
Four 4-40 Taps for
30 mm Cage System
Internal C-Mount Threads Internal SM1 Threads
1/4"-20 (M6) Tap for Posts
Four 4-40 Taps for
30 mm Cage System
Internal C-Mount Threads
  • Complete specifications are available in the Specs tab.
  • Radiant Sensitivity (RS) is related to quantum efficiency (QE) by the following expression:
    QE Formula

Multi-Channel PMTs Selection Guidea
Item # PMTSS2 PMTSS2-SCM
Photo (Click to Enlarge) Dual-Channel PMT Extra PMT Detection Channel
Number of Channels 2 1
Photocathode Material Multialkali
Wavelength Range 185 - 900 nm
Peak Wavelength (λp) 450 nm
Radiant Sensitivity at λpb
105 mA/W
PMT Gain (Max) >1.0 × 107
Photocathode Active Area 3.7 mm × 13.0 mm
(H × V)
Transimpedance Amplifier Not Included
(Compatible with TIA60)
Mechanical Features SMA905 Fiber Coupler
Internal SM1 Threads (by Disconnecting Fiber Coupler)
1/4" (M6) Counterbored Slots for Table Mounting
Interlocking Dovetails Optically Align Additional Channels
  • Complete specifications are available in the Specs tab.
  • Radiant Sensitivity (RS) is related to quantum efficiency (QE) by the following expression:
    QE Formula

Standalone Single-Channel Alkali PMTs

Cage-Mounted PMTSS
Click to Enlarge

View Imperial Product List
Item #QtyDescription
CF1251Clamping Fork, 1.24" Counterbored Slot, Universal
RS3P8E1Ø1" Pedestal Pillar Post, 8-32 Taps, L = 3"
CP02F1SM1-Threaded 30 mm Flexure Cage Plate, 0.35" Thick, 2 Retaining Rings, Imperial
ER4-P41Cage Assembly Rod, 4" Long, Ø6 mm, 4 Pack
SM1T21SM1 (1.035"-40) Coupler, External Threads, 0.5" Long
SM1A91Adapter with External C-Mount Threads and Internal SM1 Threads
PMTSS1Multialkali PMT, 185 - 900 nm, C-Mount Threads
View Metric Product List
Item #QtyDescription
CF1251Clamping Fork, 1.24" Counterbored Slot, Universal
RS3P4M1Ø25.0 mm Pedestal Pillar Post, M4 Taps, L = 75 mm
CP02F/M1SM1-Threaded 30 mm Flexure Cage Plate, 0.35" Thick, 2 Retaining Rings, Metric
ER4-P41Cage Assembly Rod, 4" Long, Ø6 mm, 4 Pack
SM1T21SM1 (1.035"-40) Coupler, External Threads, 0.5" Long
SM1A91Adapter with External C-Mount Threads and Internal SM1 Threads
PMTSS1Multialkali PMT, 185 - 900 nm, C-Mount Threads
To mount the PMTSS module to a post, 30 mm cage system, or SM1 lens tubes, many of our 30 mm cage plates can be used together with the SM1A9 C-Mount to SM1 Thread Adapter and SM1T2 Lens Tube Coupler.
PMM02 on Optical Table
Click to Enlarge

View Imperial Product List
Item #QtyDescription
RS3P8E1Ø1" Pedestal Pillar Post, 8-32 Taps, L = 3"
ER4-P41Cage Assembly Rod, 4" Long, Ø6 mm, 4 Pack
SM1L301SM1 Lens Tube, 3.00" Thread Depth, One Retaining Ring Included
FBH660-101Premium Bandpass Filter, Ø25 mm, CWL = 660 nm, FWHM = 10 nm
SM1RR1SM1 Retaining Ring for Ø1" Lens Tubes and Mounts
PMM021Multialkali Amplified PMT, 280 - 850 nm, SM1 Threads, 30 mm Cage Compatible
View Metric Product List
Item #QtyDescription
RS3P4M1Ø25.0 mm Pedestal Pillar Post, M4 Taps, L = 75 mm
ER4-P41Cage Assembly Rod, 4" Long, Ø6 mm, 4 Pack
SM1L301SM1 Lens Tube, 3.00" Thread Depth, One Retaining Ring Included
FBH660-101Premium Bandpass Filter, Ø25 mm, CWL = 660 nm, FWHM = 10 nm
SM1RR1SM1 Retaining Ring for Ø1" Lens Tubes and Mounts
PMM021Multialkali Amplified PMT, 280 - 850 nm, SM1 Threads, 30 mm Cage Compatible
The PMM01 and PMM02 modules include three 8-32 tapped holes for post mounting, four 4-40 taps for our 30 mm cage system, and internal SM1 threads for mounting lens tubes and filters.
  • PMM01: Amplified PMT for 280 - 630 nm with Voltage Output, SM1 Threads, and 30 mm Cage Compatibility
  • PMM02: Amplified PMT for 280 - 850 nm with Voltage Output, SM1 Threads, and 30 mm Cage Compatibility
  • PMT1001(/M): Amplified PMT for 230 - 920 nm with Voltage Output, SM1 Threads, and 30 mm Cage Compatibility
  • PMT1002: Amplified PMT for 230 - 920 nm with Voltage Output and
    C-Mount Threads
  • PMTSS: PMT for 185 - 900 nm with Current Output and C-Mount Threads

Thorlabs' standalone alkali PMTs are offered in four package styles. Each package provides different types of output signals and mechanical mounting features. The Graphs tab contains a plot comparing the radiant sensitivity of each PMT; the radiant sensitivity is closely related to the quantum efficiency. Complete specifications are available in the Specs tab above.

PMM01 and PMM02
These PMT modules have an active area of Ø22 mm. Their built-in transimpedance amplifiers allow them to directly provide output voltage signals through an SMA connector. The control voltage that biases the PMT is provided through a 2.5 mm mono jack. A variable voltage source that can provide up to +1.8 V will be needed for bias control. Each module ships with a 2.5 mm mono plug that can be wired by the user to an appropriate low-noise voltage source.

The photocathode is located behind internal SM1 threads. These threads can be used to connect the PMT to SM1 lens tubes, which are useful for reducing scatter into the photocathode from unwanted sources or mounting Ø1" neutral density or bandpass filters. Direct filter mounting is not recommended because the filter will be in contact with the window. In addition, four 4-40 taps for Thorlabs' 30 mm cage system are provided. Three sides of the housing have an 8-32 tapped hole for Ø1/2" and Ø1" post mounting. An 8-32 to M4 thread adapter (Item # AS4M8E) is included for metric setups.

An ±12 V power supply with a region-specific power cord is included with these PMTs. Replacement power supplies are sold below.

PMT1001(/M) and PMT1002
The photocathodes of these PMTs have an active area of Ø8 mm. Their built-in transimpedance amplifiers allow them to directly provide output voltage signals through an SMA connector. These PMTs are powered by a USB 2.0 mini port, and can be connected to a standard type A USB port, as the PMT requires 4.5 to 5.5 V DC input with 350 mA typical current. Each PMT may be controlled by a computer running Thorlabs' software (see the Software tab for details); a USB 2.0 type A to mini adapter cable is included to connect the PMT to the computer. This software should only be used with computers running the Windows® 7 (64-Bit) operating system.

These PMTs are offered in two package styles, providing a range of mechanical mounting options. The PMT1001(/M) features internal SM1 threads, which can be used to connect the PMT to SM1 lens tubes. In addition, the PMT1001(/M) features four 4-40 taps to mount the PMT onto a 30 mm cage system as well as a 1/4"-20 (M6) tapped hole for post mounting, such as with our ∅1" posts. The PMT1002 features internal C-Mount threads, which can be used to connect the PMT to C-Mount extension tubes.

Please contact Tech Support if you wish to integrate these PMTs with existing Thorlabs confocal and multiphoton systems.

PMTSS
This PMT module has an active area of 3.7 mm × 13.0 mm (H × V). It provides an output current through a BNC connector. Unlike the PMM01 and PMM02 modules, it has no transimpedance amplifier; Thorlabs' TIA60 Transimpedance Amplifier is available separately. The control voltage that biases the PMT is provided through a female M8 x 1 connector. A variable voltage source that can provide up to +1.20 V will be needed for bias control (see the Graphs tab for details). Each module ships with a male M8 x 1 connector with leads that can be wired by the user to an appropriate low-noise voltage source.

The photocathode is located behind internal C-Mount threads. These threads can be used to connect the PMT to C-Mount extension tubes, which are useful for reducing scatter into the photocathode from unwanted sources or mounting Ø1" neutral density or bandpass filters. The threads on the PMT module are not deep enough to directly accommodate a filter with a retaining ring.

No power supply is included with this PMT. The leads on the included male M8 x 1 connector can be wired to a +15 VDC source with a 7 mA current limit. See the Pin Diagrams and Shipping List tabs for details.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Imperial Price Available / Ships
PMT1001 Support Documentation
PMT1001Multialkali Amplified PMT, 230 - 920 nm, SM1 Threads, 30 mm Cage Compatible, 1/4"-20 Tap
$3,650.00
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PMM01 Support Documentation
PMM01Bialkali Amplified PMT, 280 - 630 nm, SM1 Threads, 30 mm Cage Compatible
$2,201.16
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PMM02 Support Documentation
PMM02Multialkali Amplified PMT, 280 - 850 nm, SM1 Threads, 30 mm Cage Compatible
$2,514.30
Today
PMT1002 Support Documentation
PMT1002Multialkali Amplified PMT, 230 - 920 nm, C-Mount Threads
$3,650.00
Today
PMTSS Support Documentation
PMTSSMultialkali PMT, 185 - 900 nm, C-Mount Threads
$2,878.49
Today
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PMT1001/M Support Documentation
PMT1001/MMultialkali Amplified PMT, 230 - 920 nm, SM1 Threads, 30 mm Cage Compatible, M6 Tap
$3,650.00
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Standalone Single-Channel GaAsP PMTs

Collection Angle of PMT2100 Series
Click to Enlarge

PMT2100 Series Collection Angle
  • 300 - 720 nm Spectral Range
  • Transimpedance Amplifier Provides Voltage Output
  • PMT2101(/M): SM1 Threads, 30 mm Cage Compatible, and 1/4"-20 (M6) Tap for Post Mounting
  • PMT2102: C-Mount Threads

To detect low-intensity signals in fluorescence experiments, Thorlabs offers GaAsP PMT modules with an active area of Ø5 mm. The GaAsP photocathode provides a high quantum efficiency in the visible spectrum, resulting in an elevated sensitivity to incoming illumination versus photocathodes composed of alkali metals (see the Overview for a graph of the radiant sensitivity, which is proportional to the quantum efficiency). In addition, these PMT modules utilize a wide collection angle, further enhancing light detection (see the image to the right). Note that, if exposed to high intensity incident light, sensitivity degradation is more likely to occur compared to alkali PMTs.

These PMTs feature a built-in transimpedance amplifier, providing an output voltage through an SMA connector. They are also powered by a USB 2.0 mini port; simply use a standard USB port, as the PMT requires 4.5 to 5.5 V DC input with 350 mA typical current. Each PMT may be controlled by a computer running Thorlabs' software (see the Software tab for details); a USB 2.0 type A to mini adapter cable is included to connect the PMT to the computer. This software should only be used with computers running the Windows® 7 (64-Bit) operating system.

These PMTs are offered in two package styles, providing a range of mechanical mounting options. The PMT2101(/M) features internal SM1 threads, which can be used to connect the PMT to SM1 lens tubes. In addition, the PMT2101(/M) features four 4-40 taps to mount the PMT onto a 30 mm cage system as well as a 1/4"-20 (M6) tapped hole for post mounting, such as with our ∅1" posts. The PMT2102 features internal C-Mount threads, which can be used to connect the PMT to C-Mount extension tubes.

Please contact Tech Support if you wish to integrate these PMTs with existing Thorlabs confocal and multiphoton systems.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Imperial Price Available / Ships
PMT2101 Support Documentation
PMT2101GaAsP Amplified PMT, 300 - 720 nm, SM1 Threads, 30 mm Cage Compatible, 1/4"-20 Tap
$6,324.00
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PMT2102 Support Documentation
PMT2102GaAsP Amplified PMT, 300 - 720 nm, C-Mount Threads
$6,324.00
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PMT2101/M Support Documentation
PMT2101/MGaAsP Amplified PMT, 300 - 720 nm, SM1 Threads, 30 mm Cage Compatible, M6 Tap
$6,324.00
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PMTs for Multi-Channel Detection

Adding a PMT Channel
Click to Enlarge

Interlocking Dovetails for Easy Connection of Additional Channels
Fluorescence Filter Cubes
Click to Enlarge

Removable Filter Cube Top for Holding Dichroic Mirrors and Bandpass Filters
Using the PMTSS2 and PMTSS2-SCM Modules to Construct a Three-Channel Detection System
  • PMTSS2: Dual-Channel PMT Module with Exchangeable Fluorescence Filter
    Cube Insert
  • PMTSS2-SCM: Add-On Single-Channel PMT Module with Dovetail for Mechanical and Optical Alignment
  • Compatible with SMA905 Fiber-Coupled and Free-Space Optical Inputs
  • Additional Filter Cube Inserts Available Separately

The PMTSS2 Dual-Channel Module and PMTSS2-SCM Add-On Module are designed to help ease detection of signals across multiple spectral channels. The PMTSS2 module incorporates two PMTs (Item # PMTSS, detailed above) and a DFM1T1 Filter Cube Top. This filter cube top can hold one 25 mm x 36 mm dichroic mirror and a Ø25 mm bandpass filter in front of each photocathode, thereby selecting the wavelengths that the PMTs will detect, and it includes a magnetic retention mechanism for easy exchange. The PMTSS2-SCM module is a single-channel add-on for the PMTSS2, which incorporates one PMT and an additional DFM1T1 filter cube top.

The input port of the PMTSS2 module has a fiber collimation assembly with an SMA905 connector, which accepts signals that have been coupled into a multimode fiber patch cable or bundle. A Ø910 µm core, 0.22 NA, SMA905-terminated patch cable for 250 - 1200 nm (bare fiber item # FG910UEC) is included with the module. If desired, the collimation assembly can be unthreaded to allow the module to accept free-space signals. Unthreading this assembly exposes internal SM1 threads that are compatible with our Ø1" lens tubes. The PMTSS2-SCM add-on module does not include a fiber collimation assembly, but it is compatible with the one included with the PMTSS2.

To allow a PMTSS2-SCM module to be added to an existing PMTSS2 setup, the modules' housings include interlocking dovetails that provide mechanical and optical alignment. The installation procedure is illustrated in the animation to the right and requires a 5/64" (2 mm) balldriver or hex key. If using the included fiber input, a maximum of eight channels is recommended in order to prevent beam divergence from causing inefficient signal detection. If using a free-space signal, note that each photocathode's active area is 3.7 mm × 13.0 mm (H × V).

Each PMT provides an output current through a BNC connector. No transimpedance amplifiers are included; Thorlabs' TIA60 Transimpedance Amplifiers are available separately. Each PMT requires a separate control voltage, which is provided through a female M8 x 1 connector. A variable voltage source that can provide up to +1.20 V will be needed for bias control (see the Graphs tab for details). The PMTSS2 module ships with two male M8 x 1 connectors with leads that can be wired by the user to an appropriate low-noise voltage source; the PMTSS2-SCM add-on module ships with one connector.

Each module includes 1/4" (M6) counterbored slots for mounting to an optical table or workstation. Due to the weight of these modules, we only recommend direct table mounting. The PMT can be detached from the rest of the module by loosening a setscrew with a 5/64" (2 mm) balldriver or hex key.

No power supplies are included with these PMT modules. The leads on the included male M8 x 1 connectors can be wired to +15 VDC sources with 7 mA current limits. See the Pin Diagrams and Shipping List tabs for details.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
PMTSS2 Support Documentation
PMTSS2Dual-Channel Multialkali PMT Module
$8,020.23
Today
PMTSS2-SCM Support Documentation
PMTSS2-SCMAdd-On Single-Channel Multialkali PMT Module
$3,986.20
Today
DFM1T1 Support Documentation
DFM1T1Kinematic Cage Cube Top for Fluorescence Filter Sets, Right-Turning
$255.00
Today

±12 VDC Regulated Linear Power Supply

  • Replacement Power Supply for the PMM01 and PMM02 Modules
  • ±12 VDC Power Output
  • 2 m (6.6 ft) Cable with LUMBERG RSMV3 Male Connector

The LDS12B power supply provides a regulated ±12 VDC output for use with our PMM01 and PMM02 modules. It includes an on/off switch with an LED indicator and accepts 100 VAC, 120 VAC, or 230 VAC input voltage, selectable by a switch. As shown in the diagram to the right, the 2 m (6.6 ft) long cord has three pins: one for ground, one for +12 V and one for -12 V. A region-specific power cord is shipped with the unit.

This power supply can also be used with the PDA amplified photodetectorsPDB balanced photodetectorsAPD avalanche photodetectors, and the FSAC autocorrelator for femtosecond lasers.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
LDS12B Support Documentation
LDS12B±12 VDC Regulated Linear Power Supply, 6 W, 100/120/230 VAC
$80.33
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