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Vytran® Automated Glass Processors
Glass Processor Workstation
Fiber Holder Top Insert for LED Illumination
Graphite Filament Assembly
Glass Processor Workstations, Filaments, Inserts, and Accessories All Sold Separately
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End-view images of fibers with internal structure. Shown are a) photonic crystal fiber, b) image guides, c) 6+1 PM fiber combiner, and d) 37 to 1 fiber combiner.
Build Your System
Thorlabs' Vytran® Optical Fiber Glass Processors are versatile platforms designed for fabricating splices, tapers, couplers, terminations, and combiners using optical fibers. The glass processors sold on this page feature automated pre-splice alignment for the XY position of the fiber edge and rotational orientation of the fiber core. These systems are ideal for splicing applications involving polarization-maintaining fibers, photonic crystal fibers, and other specialty fibers with microstructured cores. The GPX3400 glass processor is compatible with fibers up to Ø1.25 mm cladding while the higher power GPX3600 can process fibers up to Ø1.7 mm cladding.
These glass processors incorporate a filament-based furnace assembly that provides a uniform and precisely controlled, high-temperature heat source. Because filament material and size can be interchanged easily (9 different filament options are available below), a wide range of fiber cladding diameters and specialty fiber types can be accommodated using the same system. Precise control over fiber position and orientation enables a number of advanced fiber processing applications from low-loss splicing in dissimilar fibers to the creation of adiabatic fiber tapers, fiber terminations, or fused fiber couplers (please see the Applications tab for examples).
True Core Imaging
Options and Accessories
Several optional add-ons are available for these systems to enable specialized applications. The GPXWCS Liquid Cooling System helps cool the furnace assembly when the filaments are used for extended heating times and is recommended for customers interested in creating long fiber tapers. It comes included with the high-power GPX3600 and can be purchased as an add-on for the GPX3400. Multi-fiber holder bottom inserts are used when fabricating couplers or combiners and are designed to hold two or three fibers in close proximity during heating. Thorlabs also offers a Fiber Taper Software Add-On and Taper Handling Fixtures (sold below), which include software application files and fixture upgrades that enable high repeatability when fabricating and handling microtapers, nanotapers, fused fiber couplers, or wavelength division multiplexers. The software add-on and fixtures can be purchased separately or together as a kit. We also offer the GPXCFXL Fixture that supports the positioning of fiber bundles during combiner fabrication. The GPXL1 Gooseneck Light is available for end-view illumination of the fiber or for general lighting during alignment. It can be mounted to the left or right side of the workstation.
Fiber Holder Inserts Selection Guide (Top Inserts and Standard or Transfer Bottom Inserts)
Fiber Holder Inserts, which are designed to hold various sized fibers within the glass processors, must be purchased separately. Standard and transfer bottom inserts have V-grooves to hold the fiber, while the top inserts each feature a recessed, flat surface that clamps the fiber against the V-groove in the bottom insert. Each top and bottom insert is sold individually, as the fiber outer diameter clamped by the left and right holding blocks may not be the same. At least two top inserts and two bottom inserts are required to operate the glass processor. For multi-fiber inserts, which are used to make fused couplers or combiners, the recommended top inserts are listed in the multi-fiber insert table.
The table below indicates the maximum and minimum outer diameters that can be accommodated by different combinations of top and bottom inserts. It also indicates how far offset the fiber will be for recommended combinations of top and bottom inserts. Note that this outer diameter may be the fiber cladding, jacket, or buffer. If one side of the fiber is being discarded, it is preferable to clamp onto the cladding of this section except in special cases (such as non-circular fiber) where the coating or buffer may be preferable. Sections of fiber that are not being discarded should always be clamped on the coating or buffer in order to avoid damaging the glass. This may require different sets of fiber holder inserts to be used in the left and right holding blocks. In this case, it is important to minimize the difference in the offsets introduced by the left and right sets of inserts when attempting to produce high-quality splices.
Each V-groove can accommodate a range of fiber sizes.
Fiber Insert Selection Chart
Included Splice Files
Each glass processor workstation is shipped with a PC and monitor pre-installed with the GUI software for operating the glass processor. An abbreviated library of splice process files, listed to the right, is included for common splicing and tapering procedures. The GUI and splice library software enables users to create their own splice files for new processes or to customize existing files as necessary. Additionally, an add-on software package is available that includes application files for specialized applications that can be purchased separately below. Please contact Tech Support for inquiries regarding your specific application.
The sections below illustrate several fiber splicing and tapering applications that can be programmed through the software GUI.
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Figure 1. Screenshot of PM Fiber Alignment Configuration Window
The end-view alignment process is initiated by pulling the fibers back so that an end-view mirror can be inserted between two fiber end faces. An LED illuminates the fiber cladding, allowing the software to image the fiber end. Then, the image of the fiber end face is displayed and used to automatically align the cores of the two fibers. PM alignment parameters can be set for each fiber type as shown Figure 1 to the right. This window consists of four parameters: diameter (fiber cladding), fiber type, and two PM geometry parameters for both the left and right fiber. If these parameters are not known, it is possible to directly measure them using the displayed image of the fiber end face.
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Figure 2. Screenshot of Taper Geometry Customization Window
Fiber Taper Customization
During the tapering process, three different regions are created. Initially, the fiber is elongated and tapered under constant heating creating the "down taper" region where the fiber diameter is decreasing. Once the fiber has been tapered down to a desired diameter, a constant rate of elongation is applied so that there is a region with a reduced, but constant diameter, known as the "waist" of the fiber. Finally, the pulling force on the fiber is reduced until finally it is no longer elongating, creating the “up taper.” The filament temperature and pull velocities are controlled to achieve the desired geometry of the fiber.
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Figure 3. Screenshot of Tension Monitor and Control System
Tension Monitor and Control
As an example, a standard Ø400 to Ø200 µm taper should be pre-tensioned to approximately 20 g. The desired pre-tension is applied by pulling the fiber in fine steps using one of the fiber holding blocks. Feedback loops can be set during the taper process to monitor the tension in the fiber. For example, if the tension drops to 0 or negative values, the heating should be decreased because the glass has been softened too much. Conversely, if the tension increases beyond a given set point, heating should be increased because the fiber has not been sufficiently softened.
Thorlabs' Vytran® Optical Fiber Glass Processors are versatile, fully integrated glass processing and fiber splicing platforms for fabricating splices, tapers, and custom terminations with high precision and low loss. Featuring a comprehensive applications library, these processes can be performed for many different fiber sizes and types. Examples of a few fiber splicing/processing applications are listed in the sections below and highlighted in the video to the right.
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Two fibers with dissimilar cores before and after splicing. The dissimilar cores are clearly visible before the cores are thermally expanded.
Fusion Splicing is a process of joining two optical fibers end-to-end using heat. The goal is to fuse the two fibers together in such a way that light passing through the fibers is not scattered or reflected by the splice while ensuring that the splice and the region surrounding it should be almost as strong as the original fiber. The glass processors use a resistive graphite or iridium filament shaped like an upside-down omega to provide the heat necessary for fusion.
Once the two fibers to be spliced are aligned, the splice head is repositioned so that the filament is centered under the fiber ends. Power is then applied to the filament to raise its temperature to a level hot enough to fuse the fibers together, typically about 3000 °C. Because the filament would oxidize if it were brought to such a high temperature in air, high-purity argon gas is used to purge the splicing chamber of oxygen during the filament fusion process. In order to keep the fibers clean and improve splice strength, the purging gas (not available from Thorlabs) is set to flow over the fibers at a high rate during the fusion process.
Mode Adapters and NA Converters
Fiber Processing Applications
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Ø20 µm core, Ø400 µm cladding large-mode-area (LMA) fiber tapered to Ø125 µm cladding.
Tapering and Drawing
End caps are large-core-diameter, short-length fibers used to diffuse the beam intensity of high-power fibers to prevent damage to fiber end faces. Glass processors are well suited for fusing large-core-silica end caps to the ends of power beam delivery fibers. We recommend using an LDC401 or LDC401A Fiber Cleaver to fabricate end caps with precise lengths.
Couplers and Combiners
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Two single mode fibers tapered and fused together for 50/50 coupling in a glass processor. Spacing between the fiber cores is approximately 15 to 20 µm.
These Vytran Glass Processor Workstations feature automatic XY and rotational alignment of the fiber and are especially designed for processing polarization-maintaining fibers as well as specialty fibers with microstructured cores. The GPX3400 and GPX3600 can splice fibers with outer diameters up to 1.25 mm or 1.7 mm, respectively.
The precision fiber handlers can position a fiber in XY with a resolution of 0.25 µm and rotate a fiber up to 200° with a resolution of 0.02°. The included fiber holders can translate up to 180 mm along the fiber axis, allowing the filament to heat large portions of the input fiber(s). This extended heating range is ideal for many applications including thermally diffusing core dopants to achieve low-loss splices between highly dissimilar fibers or for fabricating long adiabatic fiber tapers. The fiber holding blocks can also pull vacuum through fiber holder inserts with vacuum holes to help secure the fiber within the insert.
The workstation includes the fiber holders, furnace assembly, CCD camera for imaging, PC and monitor pre-installed with the control software, and mirror tower for side- and end-view imaging. Each processor workstation is fitted with a high-purity PTFE gas line and a gas regulator equipped with a CGA-580 output port; a DIN 477 Number 6 output port connector is also included. An FTAV4 Graphite Filament Assembly (for Ø125 µm - Ø600 µm Cladding) comes pre-installed in the system; additional graphite or iridum filaments are sold separately below. Top and bottom inserts for the fiber holders, both of which are required to operate the glass processor workstation, can also be purchased separately below. Nylon-tipped setscrews are used to secure the inserts in the fiber holding blocks; replacement 2-56, 1/8" long SS2SN013 setscrews are available in packs of 10.
Installation and training by one of our application engineers is recommended for this system; please contact Tech Support for more details.
Filament Assemblies contain a graphite or iridium omega-shaped resistive heater element encased within a protective shroud. The filaments sold here are compatible with the automated glass processors; those indicated in the table to the right as splice filaments are also compatible with the LFS4100 Splicing System.
A selection of six graphite and three iridium filament assemblies for fibers with claddings up to Ø1800 µm are available. Graphite filaments are capable of achieving the high temperatures necessary for splicing or tapering large-diameter fibers while outgassing less than filaments made from other metals. Alternatively, iridium filaments heat fibers at slightly lower temperatures than graphite filaments, making these ideal for working with soft glass fibers. Although the heating time of a filament is approximately 40 minutes, this can vary depending on a number of factors including argon quality, splice/taper duration, and fiber glass quality.
Filaments are optimized for splicing or tapering applications; this is not restrictive, however, as splice filaments can be used for tapering. Splice filaments have an opening in the top of the assembly body, while tapering filaments are closed off at the top to minimize exposure to contaminants. Different filament bodies are distinguished by the version number (e.g., V4, V6, T3) engraved on the assembly body.
Before a new filament can be used in a system, it must be burned in. During the burn-in process, the filament is cycled between its operating temperature and room temperature several times. This stabilizes the thermal properties of the filament so that it produces a more consistent power output and heating performance when current is passed through it. This procedure only needs to be performed once, after which the filament will only need regular normalization. If performance begins to degrade, filament refurbishments can be ordered by contacting Tech Support.
Fiber Holder Inserts, which consist of one top insert and either a bottom or transfer insert, are placed in the fiber holding blocks of the optical glass processor to secure the fiber during splicing or tapering. The inserts clamp the cladding, buffer, or coating of the fiber and can accommodate outer diameters of up to 3.198 mm. Please refer to the Fiber Holder Insert tab for more information on pairing the top and bottom inserts sold here.
Two types of top inserts are compatible with the automated glass processors. The VHA standard top inserts come in single-sided and dual-sided versions. These standard inserts can also be used in the LDC401 Series of Fiber Cleavers, FPS300 Stripping and Cleaning Station, and LFS4100 Splicing System. The VHB00 and VHB05 top inserts (shown to the left) feature an indent for LED illumination from the automated glass processor workstations and are necessary for end-view imaging and alignment of the cores of polarization-maintaining and microstructured specialty fibers.
Fiber Holder Inserts, which consist of one top insert and a bottom insert, are placed in the fiber holding blocks of the optical glass processor to secure the fiber during splicing or tapering. Bottom inserts are magnetically held within the fiber holding blocks of the glass processors and other compatible systems. The V-groove machined into the bottom inserts ensures the fiber is centered within the fiber holder; inserts with different V-groove sizes are available (see the Fiber Holder Insert tab for more information on pairing top and bottom standard or transfer inserts). Vacuum holes at the bottom of the transfer inserts are used for holding and aligning small fibers within the V-groove.
Three types of bottom inserts are compatible with the glass processors: transfer bottom inserts, standard bottom inserts, and multi-fiber bottom inserts (sold further below). Transfer bottom inserts (indicated with item #s starting with VHF) allow for a single fiber to be transferred between the LDC401 Series of Fiber Cleavers, FPS300 Stripping and Cleaning Station, and LFS4100 Splicing System with minimal loss of alignment. For example, a fiber can be placed in a transfer insert and cleaved using the LDC401 cleaver, then the entire transfer insert can be placed in the LFS4100 Splicing System for splicing. This process works because the transfer inserts are precisely located within each Vytran system, and the VHT1 Magnetic Lid (sold directly below) prevents axial movement of the fiber during transport. Transfer inserts are equipped with vacuum holes that provide a small suction force to hold the fiber in place. All of these transfer inserts require the VHT1 Transfer Clamp (sold below); transfer inserts for fiber outer diameters ≤550 µm also require a Graphite V-Groove (sold below).
Standard Fiber Holder Bottom Inserts (indicated by item #s starting with VHE) can be used with large-diameter fibers. These inserts come in single-sided and dual-sided versions. The standard bottom inserts can also be used in the LDC401 Series of Fiber Cleavers, FPS300 Stripping and Cleaning Station, and LFS4100 Splicing System. Unlike transfer inserts, alignment of the fibers will not be maintained when these inserts are transferred between systems.
These Transfer Clamps and V-Grooves are used with the VHF Transfer Bottom Inserts sold directly above to move a single fiber between various Vytran systems with minimal loss of alignment. For example, a fiber can be placed in a transfer insert and cleaved using the LDC401 Fiber Cleaver. Then, the entire transfer insert and fiber can be moved to a glass processor for splicing.
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The VHD320P features adjustment pins that are used to bring two fibers into very close proximity for splicing.
Multi-Fiber Inserts are designed for applications requiring two or three fibers to be tapered and fused together, such as when making wavelength division multiplexers, fused fiber couplers, or power combiners.
Side-by-side inserts have a U-shaped groove for holding two fibers tightly together in parallel. Double-V-slot inserts feature two parallel V-grooves on the same side of the insert that each hold a single fiber. The VHD320P insert additionally features offset adjustment pins that are used to bring the two fibers in close contact during splicing (see photo to the left). Triple-V-slot inserts have a V-groove in the middle and two V-grooves adjacent on both sides that alllow a signal fiber to be fused with two pump fibers.
These bottom inserts are magnetically held within the fiber holding blocks of the glass processors and other compatible systems. The grooves machined into the inserts ensure the fiber is centered within the fiber holder. Vacuum holes at the bottom of the transfer inserts are used for holding and aligning small fibers within the V-groove. Recommended top inserts for each multi-fiber insert are indicated in the table to the right. Alignment of the fibers will not be maintained when these inserts are transferred between systems.
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End-view image of 3:1 combiner made using a capillary tube.
Fluorine-doped silica capillary tubes are ideal for the manufacture of high-power fiber laser combiners and other specialty applications. During this process, the fibers that will be joined are inserted into the capillary tube, then the tube is fused and tapered down into a solid glass element. With a core consisting of the fused fibers and a cladding formed by the low-index capillary tube, the tapered element acts as a multimode waveguide, with the capillary tube serving to contain the light in the combiner.
Please make sure to use gloves when handling these fluorine-doped tubes.
The GPXWCS Liquid Cooling System is an optional add-on for our Vytran Glass Processors that helps keep the furnace assembly cooled during extended heating operations. It is highly recommended for customers interested in fiber tapering, mode adapter, or fiber termination applications. This cooling system is also compatible with the LFS4100 Splicing System but is not necessary for standard splicing processes.
The GPXWCS has a 157 mL reservoir to cycle high-performance liquid coolant (700 mL bottle of coolant included) at flow rates of up to 4 L/min with a cooling capacity of 590 W at 25 °C ambient temperature; click here for a MSDS safety sheet. Tubing and fittings for connecting to a Vytran Glass Processor are included. The cooling system can be powered either through a 12 VDC Molex Connector (via the included computer slot adapter) or externally using the included 110/120 VAC power adapter.
These optional add-ons for the Vytran Glass Processors are designed to aid microtaper and fused fiber coupler processing. The software and fixture add-ons can be purchased separately or together in a kit. The GPXFBT-SFT software package enables finer control over heating and fiber pulling parameters during active FBT processes, resulting in improved yields and high repeatability between runs.
Two fixture add-ons are also available. The GPXFBT-FXTA Adjustable Taper Fiber Gripper fixture provides a stable base for your specific length component, allowing transfer to a packaging station. The fiber gripper can be adjusted to accommodate taper lengths from 0 - 3.15" (0 - 80 mm). The GPXFBT-FXTB Removable Taper Holder Fiber Fixture option acts as a pick-up and removal apparatus for the user to safely and securely transport the fabricated taper or coupler for secondary processing or in situ packaging. The stages included with these fixtures have an X-axis and Y-axis travel of 1" (25.4 mm) and a roll and yaw adjustment of ±2.5° and ±5°, respectively.
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The fiber holding block assembly translates along a rail for Y-axis positioning.
The GPXCFXL Fiber Combiner Loading Fixture is an optional add-on for our GPX3000 Series Glass Processors that provides support and five-axis positioning of fiber bundles during manufacture of fiber combiners. The multi-axis assembly enables direct insertion of fiber bundles into fragile tapered capillary tubes. This reduces the risk of tube breakage by allowing controlled bundle insertion while the capillary tube is still in the glass processing station.
The bundle is placed in the bottom insert (sold separately above), which is mounted in the assembly's fiber holding block. XZ translation is provided by the integrated T12XZ stage, while the support assembly is attached to a rail for travel in the fiber feed direction. To aid with bundle alignment, coarse pitch and yaw adjustments are achieved through a lockable ball pivot mechanism; note that this mechanism also allows off-axis roll that is coupled with translation. The stage's travel along the rail (Y-axis) is also lockable.
The fixture mounts to the left side of processors and supports a wide variety of inserts to suit individual needs. The working platform features a double hinge to ensure a gapless working surface and folds up 90° with an air spring support and a pin lock at the vertical and horizontal positions. Please contact Tech Support to request a variant for mounting on the right side of a processor.
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USC2 Ultrasonic Cleaner and USC2NVT Nest for Vytran Transfer Bottom Inserts
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The cleaning intensity and duration controls are located on the rear of the cleaner.
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Thorlabs' Vytran® USC2 Ultrasonic Fiber Cleaner is designed for volume processing of bare fiber. Adjustment knobs for cleaning intensity and cleaning duration allow the user to easily set repeatable cleaning parameters. The dunking jig offers adjustable immersion depth and is compatible with interchangeable fiber holder nests (each sold separately). A red LED indicates when the cleaning cycle is active. The 100 mL solvent tank is only suitable for use with acetone or isopropyl alcohol.
Tilting the dunking jig submerges the fiber in the tank and initiates the ultrasonic cleaning process. The ultrasonic agitation ceases after the chosen cleaning duration. The height of the fiber holder above the solvent tank can be changed over a 0.5" (12.7 mm) range using the knurled adjuster on the side of the dunking jig, visible in the photo above.
The knurled adjuster can also be reversed to disengage the bare fiber nest and switch it out for another fiber holder nest. Each cleaner is shipped with a bare fiber nest installed in the dunking jig. The USC2NVT Nest (sold separately) is designed for use with Vytran transfer bottom inserts. Accessories are available for the Vytran fiber nest to support a wider range of usage scenarios, including a clamp for standard bottom inserts and spacers for recessing inserts farther from the solvent tank. We also offer nests for Fujikura® and Fitel® fiber holders (each sold separately). Please see the complete product presentation for more information.
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The GPXL1 can be attached on either the right or left side of the glass processor workstation
The GPXL1 Gooseneck Light is a lamp that can be used to couple light into a fiber combiner for end-view illumination or for general lighting of the workstation during alignment. The lamp features an on/off switch and a dimmer knob to control brightness. The flexible neck allows the lamp head to be easily positioned near a fiber or furnace.
Mount the GPXL1 on either side of the workstation using the mounting holes on the workstation (as seen in the image to the right). Two 10-32 mounting screws and a 5/32" hex key are included.
Users must also purchase a GPXL1PS 12 VDC Power Supply along with the GPXL1. The power supply includes a region-specific power cord which must be used with an 85 - 265 VAC, 47 - 63 Hz power source.