Lithium Niobate Electro-Optic Modulators, Fiber-Coupled (765 nm - 1090 nm)


  • Up to 40 GHz Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) Modulators
  • 785 nm, 850 nm, or 1060 nm Wavelength Operation
  • Annealed Proton-Exchange Waveguides
  • Fiber-Coupled, High-Speed Modulation

LNY1010F

1060 nm 10 GHz Phase Modulator, FC/PC Connectors

LNX8540A

850 nm 40 GHz Intensity Modulator, FC/APC Connectors

LNY7810A

785 nm 10 GHz Phase Modulator, FC/APC Connectors

Related Items


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Lithium Niobate Intensity Modulator Diagram
Click to Enlarge

This operational diagram of an intensity modulator shows the waveguide (blue lines) splitting into two paths embedded in the surface of the LiNbO3 (green). The input light is first affected by the modulating RF drive voltage and then the DC bias voltage, as shown by the boxed yellow regions.
X-Cut Lithium Niobate Cross Section
Click to Enlarge

The cross-section of an X-Cut LiNbO3 intensity modulator with annealed proton-exchange waveguide technology. The transverse electric (TE)-polarized mode is shown in the upper right.
Lithium Niobate Phase Modulator Diagram
Click to Enlarge

This operational diagram of a phase modulator shows the waveguide (blue line) as one through optical path embedded in the surface of the LiNbO3 (green). The input light is affected only by the modulating RF drive voltage, as shown by the boxed yellow region.

APE Waveguide Technology

APE waveguides are formed by exchanging lithium ions with a proton source such as H+. This is accomplished by submerging LiNbO3 in an acid melt rich in H+ ions, resulting in a change in the material's refractive index. Following this, the waveguides are annealed at high temperature to remove excess hydrogen from the exchanged region, leading to a stable waveguide. This annealing stage also transforms the step-index waveguides to gradient-index waveguides with greatly reduced single-mode propagation loss.

The APE process causes an increase in the extraordinary refractive index, but a decrease in the ordinary refractive index, meaning only the transverse electric (TE)-polarized mode is allowed to propagate. APE waveguides have significantly reduced photorefractive sensitivity compared to titanium-indiffused waveguides, enabling high-speed modulation at shorter wavelengths.

Features

  • Intensity (LNX Series) or Phase (LNY Series) Modulators Available
  • 785 nm, 850 nm, or 1060 nm Wavelength Operation
  • Annealed Proton-Exchange Waveguides
  • X-Cut Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3)
  • Low Optical Insertion Loss: ≤5 dB (LNX Series) or ≤4 dB (LNY Series)
  • Long-Term Bias Stability
  • Reduced Photorefractive Sensitivity Compared to Titanium-Indiffused Waveguides
  • Polarization-Maintaining (PM) Input and Output Fiber Pigtails
  • FC/PC or FC/APC Fiber Connectors

Common Applications

  • Quantum Optics
  • High-Speed Telecommunications
  • Test and Measurement

Thorlabs offers lithium niobate (LiNbO3) modulators for 785 nm, 850 nm, or 1060 nm wavelength applications. These high-performance devices are based on annealed proton-exchange (APE) waveguide technology, offer low optical insertion loss of ≤5 dB for intensity modulators or ≤4 dB for phase modulators, and are ideal for developing high-speed modulation systems.

The modulators on this page are fabricated from X-cut LiNbO3 (see the example diagram to the top right). For intensity modulators, which are denoted with the LNX prefix, a symmetrical design is employed to minimize frequency-chirp in the modulated signal. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure is used to allow modulation of the optical output power of the LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators, as shown by the operational diagram to the top far right. These devices include electrical connections for the modulation driving signal and for biasing the modulator. For phase modulators, items that are denoted with the LNY prefix, the X-cut waveguide structure allows for phase modulation of light while retaining a high polarization extinction ratio. An operational diagram of a phase modulator is shown to the right. Since the phase modulators do not require biasing, these devices only include an electrical connection for the modulation driving signal. Please see the Pin Diagrams tab for more details.

The input and output fiber pigtails of the modulators are made from polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber and are terminated with FC/PC or FC/APC connectors. The narrow key of the fiber connector is aligned to the slow axis of the modulator. Please note that mixed FC/PC and FC/APC connectors can be provided upon request. For more information on custom configurations (e.g., connectors, wavelengths) and quotes, please contact Tech Support.

The performance of each modulator is factory tested, and a test result summary is included with each device. The test results and tabular data can be downloaded by clicking on the red Docs icon () next to the Item # and entering your modulator's serial number under "Download Serial Item Data".

Our MX40G-850 fiber-optic, calibrated electrical-to-optical converter incorporates the LNX8540x modulators. For more information on custom integrated solutions and quotes for configurations that combine modulators with lasers, bias controllers, and amplifiers, please contact us.

785 nm Modulator Pin Diagram

785 nm 40 GHz Intensity Modulator Pin Diagram
Click to Enlarge

LNX7840F and LNX7840A 40 GHz Intensity Modulators Pin Diagram
785 nm 10 GHz Phase Modulator Pin Diagram
Click to Enlarge

LNY7810F and LNY7810A 10 GHz Phase Modulators Pin Diagram

850 nm Modulator Pin Diagrams

850 nm 40 GHz Intensity Modulator Pin Diagram
Click to Enlarge

LNX8540F and LNX8540A 40 GHz Intensity Modulators Pin Diagram
1060 nm 20 GHz Intensity Modulator Pin Diagram
Click to Enlarge

LNY8510F and LNY8510A 10 GHz Phase Modulators Pin Diagram

1060 nm Modulator Pin Diagrams

1060 nm 20 GHz Intensity Modulator Pin Diagram
Click to Enlarge

LNX1020F and LNX1020A 20 GHz Intensity Modulators Pin Diagram
1060 nm 40 GHz Intensity Modulator Pin Diagram
Click to Enlarge

LNX1040F and LNX1040A 40 GHz Intensity Modulators Pin Diagram
1060 nm 200 MHz Intensity Modulator Pin Diagram

Click to Enlarge

LNY10D2F and LNY10D2A 200 MHz Phase Modulators Pin Diagram
1060 nm 20 GHz Intensity Modulator Pin DiagramClick to Enlarge
LNY1010F and LNY1010A 10 GHz Phase Modulators Pin Diagram

Posted Comments:
Paul Hamilton  (posted 2023-12-14 09:44:02.023)
I'd like to use the LNY8510 at 894 nm. I know the spec says a max wavelength of 870 nm. Do you have any data for operation at 894 nm? Thanks!
ksosnowski  (posted 2023-12-29 08:48:21.0)
Hello Paul, thanks for reaching out to Thorlabs. We have successfully operated the LNX8540 at 940 nm. Based on this, we expect the LNY8510A should work at 894 nm. The caveat is that we cannot guarantee all of the specs (e.g., Vpi will be higher).
艾 传韡  (posted 2023-10-19 16:26:54.75)
您好,想咨询一下目前铌酸锂强度调制器为何在可见光波段无法实现呢
jpolaris  (posted 2023-10-23 12:29:47.0)
Thank you for contacting Thorlabs. English translation: "Why does Thorlabs not offer any Lithium Niobate Intensity Modulators that work in the visible wavelength band?" We have plans to release a Lithium Niobate Intensity Modulator that will operate down to 775 nm in the near future. 775 nm is at the edge of what the current process used to make these particular Lithium Niobate Intensity Modulators is capable of producing. Below 775 nm, the Lithium Niobate begins to act strange, partially due to photorefractive damage, and partially due to nonlinear effects which begin to occur quickly as the wavelength gets shorter.

785 nm Intensity Modulators

Applications

  • Analog Modulation Up to 40 GHz
  • Quantum Optics
  • Pulse Generation
  • Test and Measurement

The LNX7840F and LNX7840A high-speed intensity modulators have FC/PC or FC/APC connectors, respectively, and provide up to 40 GHz of modulation over the 775 nm to 830 nm operating range. The RF port input connector is an Anritsu (V) female spark plug (1.85 mm compatible) connector.

Item # Info Operating
Wavelength
Operating
Frequency Rangea
Optical
Insertion Lossb
Optical
Return Loss
Optical Extinction
Ratio (@ DC)c
Optical
Input Powerd
RF Vπe Crystal
Orientation
Connector
Type
LNX7840F info 775 nm - 830 nm DC to 40 GHz (Min) ≤5 dB
(4.5 dB Typ.)
≥30 dB ≥20 dB ≤20 mW ≤4.8 V
(4.0 V Typ.)
X-Cut FC/PC
LNX7840A info FC/APC
  • Operating frequency range is defined as the frequency range where the response rolls off smoothly without irregular features.
  • 10 mW Input, Peak Bias, Without Connector
  • 10 mW Input, DC
  • Absolute Maximum Rating
  • @ 1 GHz
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
LNX7840F Support Documentation
LNX7840F40 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 775 nm - 830 nm
$5,630.40
Today
LNX7840A Support Documentation
LNX7840A40 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 775 nm - 830 nm
$5,630.40
Today

785 nm Phase Modulators

Applications

  • Quantum Optics
  • Frequency Modulation
  • Spectrum Broadening
  • Laser Stabilization
  • Coherent Communications
  • Test and Measurement

The LNY7810F and LNY7810A high-speed phase modulators have FC/PC or FC/APC connectors, respectively, and provide up to 10 GHz of modulation over the 765 nm to 805 nm operating range. The RF port input connector is a field-replaceable 2.92 mm female connector.

Item # Info Operating
Wavelength
Operating
Frequency Rangea
Optical
Insertion Lossb
Optical
Return Loss
Polarization Extinction
Ratio (@ DC)c
Optical
Input Powerd
RF Vπe Crystal
Orientation
Connector
Type
LNY7810F info 765 nm - 805 nm DC to 10 GHz (Min) ≤4 dB
(3 dB Typ.)
≥30 dB ≥20 dB ≤25 mW ≤5.2 V
(4.2 V Typ.)
X-Cut FC/PC
LNY7810A info FC/APC
  • Operating frequency range is defined as the frequency range where the response rolls off smoothly without irregular features.
  • 20 mW Input, Without Connector
  • 20 mW Input
  • Absolute Maximum Rating
  • @ 1 GHz
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
LNY7810F Support Documentation
LNY7810F10 GHz Phase Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 765 - 805 nm
$4,100.40
Today
LNY7810A Support Documentation
LNY7810A10 GHz Phase Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 765 - 805 nm
$4,100.40
Today

850 nm Intensity Modulators

Applications

  • Analog Modulation Up to 40 GHz
  • WDM Transmission
  • Quantum Optics
  • High-Speed Telecommunications
  • Test and Measurement

The LNX8540F and LNX8540A high-speed intensity modulators have FC/PC or FC/APC connectors, respectively, and provide up to 40 GHz of modulation over the 830 nm to 870 nm operating range. The RF port input connector is a 1.85 mm female connector.

Item # Info Operating
Wavelength
Operating
Frequency Range
Optical
Insertion Lossa
Optical
Return Loss
Optical Extinction
Ratio (@ DC)b
Optical
Input Powerc
RF Vπd Crystal
Orientation
Connector
Type
LNX8540F info 830 nm - 870 nm DC to 40 GHz (Min) ≤5 dB
(4.5 dB Typ.)
≥30 dB ≥20 dB ≤25 mW ≤5.3 V
(4.8 V Typ.)
X-Cut FC/PC
LNX8540A info FC/APC
  • 20 mW Input, Peak Bias, Without Connector
  • 20 mW Input
  • Absolute Maximum Rating
  • @ 1 GHz
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
LNX8540F Support Documentation
LNX8540F40 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 830 nm - 870 nm
$5,324.40
Today
LNX8540A Support Documentation
LNX8540A40 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 830 nm - 870 nm
$5,324.40
Today

850 nm Phase Modulators

Applications

  • Quantum Optics
  • Frequency Modulation
  • Spectrum Broadening
  • Laser Stabilization
  • Coherent Communications
  • Test and Measurement

The LNY8510F and LNY8510A high-speed phase modulators have FC/PC or FC/APC connectors, respectively, and provide up to 10 GHz of modulation over the 830 nm to 870 nm operating range. The RF port input connector is a field-replaceable 2.92 mm female connector.

Item # Info Operating
Wavelength
Operating
Frequency Range
Optical
Insertion Lossa
Optical
Return Loss
Polarization Extinction
Ratio (@ DC)b
Optical
Input Powerc
RF Vπd Crystal
Orientation
Connector
Type
LNY8510F info 830 nm - 870 nm DC to 10 GHz (Min) ≤4 dB
(3 dB Typ.)
≥30 dB ≥20 dB ≤25 mW ≤5.2 V
(4.8 V Typ.)
X-Cut FC/PC
LNY8510A info FC/APC
  • 20 mW Input, Without Connector
  • 20 mW Input
  • Absolute Maximum Rating
  • @ 1 GHz
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
LNY8510F Support Documentation
LNY8510F10 GHz Phase Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 830 - 870 nm
$3,794.40
Today
LNY8510A Support Documentation
LNY8510A10 GHZ Phase Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 830 - 870 nm
$3,794.40
Today

1060 nm Intensity Modulators

Applications

  • Analog Modulation Up to 40 GHz
  • RF-Over-Fiber (RFOF) and Microwave Photonics
  • Pulse Generation for Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (YDFA)
  • Quantum Optics
  • High-Speed Telecommunications
  • Test and Measurement

The LNX1020x and LNX1040x high-speed intensity modulators provide up to 20 GHz or 40 GHz, respectively, of modulation over the 1030 nm to 1090 nm operating range. Both the 20 GHz and 40 GHz modulators are available with either FC/PC or FC/APC connectors. The RF port input connector is a field-replaceable 2.92 mm female connector for the LNX1020x or an Anritsu (V) female spark plug (1.85 mm compatible) connector for the LNX1040x.

Item # Info Operating
Wavelength
Operating Frequency Rangea Optical
Insertion Lossb
Optical
Return Loss
Optical Extinction
Ratio (@ DC)c
Optical
Input Powerd
RF Vπe Crystal
Orientation
Connector
Type
LNX1020F info 1030 nm - 1090 nm DC to 20 GHz (Min) ≤5 dB
(4.5 dB Typ.)
≥30 dB ≥20 dB ≤350 mW ≤4.5 V
(4.0 V Typ.)
X-Cut FC/PC
LNX1020A info FC/APC
LNX1040F info DC to 40 GHz (Min) ≤4.2 V
(3.9 V Typ.)
FC/PC
LNX1040A info FC/APC
  • Operating frequency range is defined as the frequency range where the response rolls off smoothly without irregular features.
  • 20 mW Input, Peak Bias, Without Connector
  • 20 mW Input
  • Absolute Maximum Rating
  • @ 1 GHz
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
LNX1020F Support Documentation
LNX1020F20 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1090 nm
$4,131.00
Today
LNX1020A Support Documentation
LNX1020A20 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1090 nm
$4,131.00
Today
LNX1040F Support Documentation
LNX1040F40 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1090 nm
$4,794.00
Today
LNX1040A Support Documentation
LNX1040A40 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1090 nm
$4,794.00
Today

1060 nm Phase Modulators

Applications

  • Quantum Optics
  • Frequency Modulation
  • Spectrum Broadening
  • Laser Stabilization
  • Coherent Communications
  • Test and Measurement

The LNY10D2x and LNY1010x Phase Modulators provide up to either 200 MHz or 10 GHz of modulation for wavelengths from 1030 nm to 1070 nm or 1030 nm to 1090 nm, respectively. Both the 200 MHz and 10 GHz modulators are available with either FC/PC or FC/APC connectors. The RF port input connector pins on the LNY10D2x modulators can be driven single-ended (unterminated) or differentially; a separate 20" BNC female to 2-pin receptacle cable is included with these modulators. For the LNY1010x modulators, the RF port input connector is a field-replaceable 2.92 mm female connector.

Item # Info Operating
Wavelength
Operating
Frequency Range
Optical
Insertion Lossa
Optical
Return Loss
Polarization Extinction
Ratio (@ DC)b
Optical
Input Powerc
RF Vπ Crystal
Orientation
Connector
Type
LNY10D2F info 1030 nm - 1070 nm DC to 200 MHz (Min) ≤3.5 dB
(3 dB Typ.)
≥30 dB ≥20 dB ≤500 mW ≤1.5 V
(1.3 V Typ.)d
X-Cut FC/PC
LNY10D2A info FC/APC
LNY1010F info 1030 nm - 1090 nm DC to 10 GHz (Min) ≤3.5 dB
(3 dB Typ.)
≥30 dB ≥20 dB ≤100 mW ≤6.8 V
(6.2 V Typ.)e
X-Cut FC/PC
LNY1010A info FC/APC
  • 20 mW Input, Without Connector
  • 20 mW Input
  • Absolute Maximum Rating
  • @ 10 kHz
  • @ 1 GHz
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
LNY10D2F Support Documentation
LNY10D2FNEW!200 MHz Phase Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1070 nm
$2,220.00
Today
LNY10D2A Support Documentation
LNY10D2ANEW!200 MHz Phase Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1070 nm
$2,220.00
7-10 Days
LNY1010F Support Documentation
LNY1010F10 GHz Phase Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1090 nm
$3,060.00
Today
LNY1010A Support Documentation
LNY1010A10 GHz Phase Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1090 nm
$3,060.00
Today