Choosing a Collimation Lens for Your Laser Diode
Since the output of a laser diode is highly divergent, collimating optics are necessary. Since aspheric lenses do not introduce spherical aberration, they are commonly chosen when the collimated laser beam is to be between one and five millimeters. A simple example will illustrate the key specifications to consider when choosing the correct lens for a given application.
Laser Diode to be Used: L780P010
Desired Collimated Beam Diameter: Ø3 mm (Major Axis)
The specifications for the L780P010 laser diode indicate that the typical parallel and perpendicular FWHM beam divergences are 10° and 30°, respectively. Therefore, as the light diverges, an elliptical beam will result. To collect as much light as possible during the collimation process, consider the larger of these two divergence angles in any calculations (i.e., in this case use 30°). If you wish to convert your elliptical beam in to a round one, we suggest using an Anamorphic Prism Pair, which magnifies one axis of your beam.
From the information above, the focal length of the lens can be determined, using the thin lens approximation:
With this information known, it is now time to choose the appropriate collimating lens. Thorlabs offers a large selection of aspheric lenses to choose from. For this application the ideal lens is a -B AR-coated molded glass aspheric lens with focal length near 5.6 mm. The C171TMD-B (mounted) or 354171-B (unmounted) aspheric lenses have a focal length of 6.20 mm, which will result in a collimated beam diameter (major axis) of 3.3 mm. Next, check to see if the numerical aperture (NA) of the diode is smaller than the NA of the lens:
0.30 = NALens > NADiode ≈ sin(15°) = 0.26
Up to this point, we have been using the FWHM beam diameter to characterize the beam. However, a better practice is to use the 1/e2 beam diameter. For a Gaussian beam profile, the 1/e2 diameter is almost equal to 1.7X the FWHM diameter. The 1/e2 beam diameter therefore captures more of the laser diode's output light (for greater power delivery) and minimizes far-field diffraction (by clipping less of the incident light).
A good rule of thumb is to pick a lens with an NA twice of the NA of the laser diode. For example, either the A390-B or the A390TM-B could be used as these lenses each have an NA of 0.53, which is more than twice the approximate NA of our laser diode (0.26). Note that these lenses each have a focal length of 4.6 mm, resulting in an approximate major beam diameter of 2.5 mm.