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Ultrafast-Enhanced Silver Mirrors for 750 - 1000 nm
HRS1015-AG Mounted Using a
Ø1" Mounted Retroreflecting
1'' Elliptical Mirror
Click to Enlarge
Mirrors Ø1/2" and larger are
laser engraved with their part
number for easy identification.
Thorlabs' Ultrafast-Enhanced Silver Mirrors are designed for applications in the fundamental wavelength range of femtosecond Ti:Sapphire lasers. These mirrors are manufactured with a dielectric overcoat that provides >98.5% absolute reflectance over the 750 - 1000 nm wavelength range, and they largely retain the low group delay dispersion (GDD) intrinsic to metallic coatings (see the tables below and the Graphs tab for details). We offer Ø1/2" and Ø1" round mirrors and a 1'' elliptical mirror with this coating, as well as 1" x 1" unmounted and Ø1" mounted retroreflecting hollow roof prism mirrors.
For Thorlabs' full selection of optics for ultrafast applications, please see the Ultrafast Optics tab.
The graph on the left shows the measured reflectance of our ultrafast-enhanced silver coating as a function of wavelength, while the graph on the right shows the theoretically calculated group delay dispersion (GDD) for a single surface. The shaded regions denote the wavelength range over which we guarantee the mirrors will meet the specifications listed in the Overview tab. Performance outside the shaded regions will vary from lot to lot and is not guaranteed.
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Click for Raw Data from 649 - 1075 nm
Measured Reflectance of Our Ultrafast-Enhanced Silver
Coating as a Function of Wavelength
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The laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) value of an ultrafast optic is defined as the fluence (per pulse) that produces visible damage after a given number of pulses. These LIDT values were measured with 52 fs FWHM pulses at 800 nm that were s-polarized and incident at 45°.
This tab compares four of Thorlabs' coatings for the Ti:Sapphire wavelength range: our low-GDD dielectric coating for 700 - 930 nm, our ultrafast-enhanced silver coating, our standard protected silver coating, and our broadband dielectric -E02 coating.
The Protected Silver Coating offers the widest spectral range and minimal dependence on the angle of incidence. However, its reflectance at typical Ti:Sapphire wavelengths is somewhat lower than our low-GDD dielectric and ultrafast-enhanced silver coatings.
Our -E02 Broadband Dielectric Mirror Coating has resonance structures within the dielectric coating layers. These structures cause ripples in the group delay dispersion and can furthermore vary strongly between coating runs. While these variations do not impact CW performance, when an ultrafast laser pulse hits such a mirror, the pulse is strongly distorted. Thorlabs' low-GDD dielectric coating and the dielectric overcoat on our ultrafast-enhanced silver mirrors are designed in such a way that there is no resonance inside the layers, thereby maintaining smooth dispersion and reflectance across the design wavelength range.
Damage Threshold Data for Thorlabs' Ultrafast-Enhanced Mirrors
The specifications to the right are measured data for Thorlabs' ultrafast-enhanced mirrors. Damage threshold specifications are constant for these mirrors, regardless of the size.
Laser Induced Damage Threshold Tutorial
The following is a general overview of how laser induced damage thresholds are measured and how the values may be utilized in determining the appropriateness of an optic for a given application. When choosing optics, it is important to understand the Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) of the optics being used. The LIDT for an optic greatly depends on the type of laser you are using. Continuous wave (CW) lasers typically cause damage from thermal effects (absorption either in the coating or in the substrate). Pulsed lasers, on the other hand, often strip electrons from the lattice structure of an optic before causing thermal damage. Note that the guideline presented here assumes room temperature operation and optics in new condition (i.e., within scratch-dig spec, surface free of contamination, etc.). Because dust or other particles on the surface of an optic can cause damage at lower thresholds, we recommend keeping surfaces clean and free of debris. For more information on cleaning optics, please see our Optics Cleaning tutorial.
Thorlabs' LIDT testing is done in compliance with ISO/DIS 11254 and ISO 21254 specifications.
The photograph above is a protected aluminum-coated mirror after LIDT testing. In this particular test, it handled 0.43 J/cm2 (1064 nm, 10 ns pulse, 10 Hz, Ø1.000 mm) before damage.
According to the test, the damage threshold of the mirror was 2.00 J/cm2 (532 nm, 10 ns pulse, 10 Hz, Ø0.803 mm). Please keep in mind that these tests are performed on clean optics, as dirt and contamination can significantly lower the damage threshold of a component. While the test results are only representative of one coating run, Thorlabs specifies damage threshold values that account for coating variances.
Continuous Wave and Long-Pulse Lasers
When an optic is damaged by a continuous wave (CW) laser, it is usually due to the melting of the surface as a result of absorbing the laser's energy or damage to the optical coating (antireflection) . Pulsed lasers with pulse lengths longer than 1 µs can be treated as CW lasers for LIDT discussions.
When pulse lengths are between 1 ns and 1 µs, laser-induced damage can occur either because of absorption or a dielectric breakdown (therefore, a user must check both CW and pulsed LIDT). Absorption is either due to an intrinsic property of the optic or due to surface irregularities; thus LIDT values are only valid for optics meeting or exceeding the surface quality specifications given by a manufacturer. While many optics can handle high power CW lasers, cemented (e.g., achromatic doublets) or highly absorptive (e.g., ND filters) optics tend to have lower CW damage thresholds. These lower thresholds are due to absorption or scattering in the cement or metal coating.
Pulsed lasers with high pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) may behave similarly to CW beams. Unfortunately, this is highly dependent on factors such as absorption and thermal diffusivity, so there is no reliable method for determining when a high PRF laser will damage an optic due to thermal effects. For beams with a high PRF both the average and peak powers must be compared to the equivalent CW power. Additionally, for highly transparent materials, there is little to no drop in the LIDT with increasing PRF.
In order to use the specified CW damage threshold of an optic, it is necessary to know the following:
Thorlabs expresses LIDT for CW lasers as a linear power density measured in W/cm. In this regime, the LIDT given as a linear power density can be applied to any beam diameter; one does not need to compute an adjusted LIDT to adjust for changes in spot size, as demonstrated by the graph to the right. Average linear power density can be calculated using the equation below.
The calculation above assumes a uniform beam intensity profile. You must now consider hotspots in the beam or other non-uniform intensity profiles and roughly calculate a maximum power density. For reference, a Gaussian beam typically has a maximum power density that is twice that of the uniform beam (see lower right).
Now compare the maximum power density to that which is specified as the LIDT for the optic. If the optic was tested at a wavelength other than your operating wavelength, the damage threshold must be scaled appropriately. A good rule of thumb is that the damage threshold has a linear relationship with wavelength such that as you move to shorter wavelengths, the damage threshold decreases (i.e., a LIDT of 10 W/cm at 1310 nm scales to 5 W/cm at 655 nm):
While this rule of thumb provides a general trend, it is not a quantitative analysis of LIDT vs wavelength. In CW applications, for instance, damage scales more strongly with absorption in the coating and substrate, which does not necessarily scale well with wavelength. While the above procedure provides a good rule of thumb for LIDT values, please contact Tech Support if your wavelength is different from the specified LIDT wavelength. If your power density is less than the adjusted LIDT of the optic, then the optic should work for your application.
Please note that we have a buffer built in between the specified damage thresholds online and the tests which we have done, which accommodates variation between batches. Upon request, we can provide individual test information and a testing certificate. The damage analysis will be carried out on a similar optic (customer's optic will not be damaged). Testing may result in additional costs or lead times. Contact Tech Support for more information.
As previously stated, pulsed lasers typically induce a different type of damage to the optic than CW lasers. Pulsed lasers often do not heat the optic enough to damage it; instead, pulsed lasers produce strong electric fields capable of inducing dielectric breakdown in the material. Unfortunately, it can be very difficult to compare the LIDT specification of an optic to your laser. There are multiple regimes in which a pulsed laser can damage an optic and this is based on the laser's pulse length. The highlighted columns in the table below outline the relevant pulse lengths for our specified LIDT values.
Pulses shorter than 10-9 s cannot be compared to our specified LIDT values with much reliability. In this ultra-short-pulse regime various mechanics, such as multiphoton-avalanche ionization, take over as the predominate damage mechanism . In contrast, pulses between 10-7 s and 10-4 s may cause damage to an optic either because of dielectric breakdown or thermal effects. This means that both CW and pulsed damage thresholds must be compared to the laser beam to determine whether the optic is suitable for your application.
When comparing an LIDT specified for a pulsed laser to your laser, it is essential to know the following:
The energy density of your beam should be calculated in terms of J/cm2. The graph to the right shows why expressing the LIDT as an energy density provides the best metric for short pulse sources. In this regime, the LIDT given as an energy density can be applied to any beam diameter; one does not need to compute an adjusted LIDT to adjust for changes in spot size. This calculation assumes a uniform beam intensity profile. You must now adjust this energy density to account for hotspots or other nonuniform intensity profiles and roughly calculate a maximum energy density. For reference a Gaussian beam typically has a maximum energy density that is twice that of the 1/e2 beam.
Now compare the maximum energy density to that which is specified as the LIDT for the optic. If the optic was tested at a wavelength other than your operating wavelength, the damage threshold must be scaled appropriately . A good rule of thumb is that the damage threshold has an inverse square root relationship with wavelength such that as you move to shorter wavelengths, the damage threshold decreases (i.e., a LIDT of 1 J/cm2 at 1064 nm scales to 0.7 J/cm2 at 532 nm):
You now have a wavelength-adjusted energy density, which you will use in the following step.
Beam diameter is also important to know when comparing damage thresholds. While the LIDT, when expressed in units of J/cm², scales independently of spot size; large beam sizes are more likely to illuminate a larger number of defects which can lead to greater variances in the LIDT . For data presented here, a <1 mm beam size was used to measure the LIDT. For beams sizes greater than 5 mm, the LIDT (J/cm2) will not scale independently of beam diameter due to the larger size beam exposing more defects.
The pulse length must now be compensated for. The longer the pulse duration, the more energy the optic can handle. For pulse widths between 1 - 100 ns, an approximation is as follows:
Use this formula to calculate the Adjusted LIDT for an optic based on your pulse length. If your maximum energy density is less than this adjusted LIDT maximum energy density, then the optic should be suitable for your application. Keep in mind that this calculation is only used for pulses between 10-9 s and 10-7 s. For pulses between 10-7 s and 10-4 s, the CW LIDT must also be checked before deeming the optic appropriate for your application.
Please note that we have a buffer built in between the specified damage thresholds online and the tests which we have done, which accommodates variation between batches. Upon request, we can provide individual test information and a testing certificate. Contact Tech Support for more information.
 R. M. Wood, Optics and Laser Tech. 29, 517 (1998).
In order to illustrate the process of determining whether a given laser system will damage an optic, a number of example calculations of laser induced damage threshold are given below. For assistance with performing similar calculations, we provide a spreadsheet calculator that can be downloaded by clicking the button to the right. To use the calculator, enter the specified LIDT value of the optic under consideration and the relevant parameters of your laser system in the green boxes. The spreadsheet will then calculate a linear power density for CW and pulsed systems, as well as an energy density value for pulsed systems. These values are used to calculate adjusted, scaled LIDT values for the optics based on accepted scaling laws. This calculator assumes a Gaussian beam profile, so a correction factor must be introduced for other beam shapes (uniform, etc.). The LIDT scaling laws are determined from empirical relationships; their accuracy is not guaranteed. Remember that absorption by optics or coatings can significantly reduce LIDT in some spectral regions. These LIDT values are not valid for ultrashort pulses less than one nanosecond in duration.
A Gaussian beam profile has about twice the maximum intensity of a uniform beam profile.
CW Laser Example
However, the maximum power density of a Gaussian beam is about twice the maximum power density of a uniform beam, as shown in the graph to the right. Therefore, a more accurate determination of the maximum linear power density of the system is 1 W/cm.
An AC127-030-C achromatic doublet lens has a specified CW LIDT of 350 W/cm, as tested at 1550 nm. CW damage threshold values typically scale directly with the wavelength of the laser source, so this yields an adjusted LIDT value:
The adjusted LIDT value of 350 W/cm x (1319 nm / 1550 nm) = 298 W/cm is significantly higher than the calculated maximum linear power density of the laser system, so it would be safe to use this doublet lens for this application.
Pulsed Nanosecond Laser Example: Scaling for Different Pulse Durations
As described above, the maximum energy density of a Gaussian beam is about twice the average energy density. So, the maximum energy density of this beam is ~0.7 J/cm2.
The energy density of the beam can be compared to the LIDT values of 1 J/cm2 and 3.5 J/cm2 for a BB1-E01 broadband dielectric mirror and an NB1-K08 Nd:YAG laser line mirror, respectively. Both of these LIDT values, while measured at 355 nm, were determined with a 10 ns pulsed laser at 10 Hz. Therefore, an adjustment must be applied for the shorter pulse duration of the system under consideration. As described on the previous tab, LIDT values in the nanosecond pulse regime scale with the square root of the laser pulse duration:
This adjustment factor results in LIDT values of 0.45 J/cm2 for the BB1-E01 broadband mirror and 1.6 J/cm2 for the Nd:YAG laser line mirror, which are to be compared with the 0.7 J/cm2 maximum energy density of the beam. While the broadband mirror would likely be damaged by the laser, the more specialized laser line mirror is appropriate for use with this system.
Pulsed Nanosecond Laser Example: Scaling for Different Wavelengths
This scaling gives adjusted LIDT values of 0.08 J/cm2 for the reflective filter and 14 J/cm2 for the absorptive filter. In this case, the absorptive filter is the best choice in order to avoid optical damage.
Pulsed Microsecond Laser Example
If this relatively long-pulse laser emits a Gaussian 12.7 mm diameter beam (1/e2) at 980 nm, then the resulting output has a linear power density of 5.9 W/cm and an energy density of 1.2 x 10-4 J/cm2 per pulse. This can be compared to the LIDT values for a WPQ10E-980 polymer zero-order quarter-wave plate, which are 5 W/cm for CW radiation at 810 nm and 5 J/cm2 for a 10 ns pulse at 810 nm. As before, the CW LIDT of the optic scales linearly with the laser wavelength, resulting in an adjusted CW value of 6 W/cm at 980 nm. On the other hand, the pulsed LIDT scales with the square root of the laser wavelength and the square root of the pulse duration, resulting in an adjusted value of 55 J/cm2 for a 1 µs pulse at 980 nm. The pulsed LIDT of the optic is significantly greater than the energy density of the laser pulse, so individual pulses will not damage the wave plate. However, the large average linear power density of the laser system may cause thermal damage to the optic, much like a high-power CW beam.
Thorlabs offers a wide selection of optics optimized for use with femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses. Please see below for more information.
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Back Surface of Mirror is Engraved with Item # for Identification
Compared to our low-GDD dielectric mirrors for 700 - 930 nm, these enhanced silver mirrors offer similar GDD, a slightly wider reflectance range, and a slightly lower reflectance value. For a general comparison of the performance of our ultrafast-enhanced silver mirrors, standard protected silver mirrors, low-GDD dielectric mirrors, and broadband dielectric mirrors, please see the Mirror Comparison tab.
As shown by the image to the right, the fine ground back surface of each mirror is engraved with its item # for easy identification.
Thorlabs' ultrafast-enhanced silver mirror features a coated face on an elliptical fused silica substrate. When the mirror is rotated by 45° about the minor axis, the resulting clear aperture is circular.
Compared to our low-GDD dielectric mirrors for 700 - 930 nm, this enhanced silver mirror offers similar GDD, a slightly wider reflectance range, and a slightly lower reflectance value. For a general comparison of the performance of our ultrafast-enhanced silver mirrors, standard protected silver mirrors, low-GDD dielectric mirrors, and broadband dielectric mirrors, please see the Mirror Comparison tab.
When elliptical mirrors are oriented at a 45° incident angle, the clear aperture is circular.
To mount this mirror, we suggest our Fixed 45° or Kinematic Elliptical Mirror Mounts. Our fixed 45° mounts are compatible with 1" elliptical mirrors. They can be post mounted or secured in an unthreaded, standard kinematic mirror mount.
For other metal-coated elliptical mirror options, please see our elliptical mirrors.
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180° Reflection is Independent of the Incident Angle of the Incoming Light
The HRS1015-AG and HR1015-AG Ultrafast Enhanced, Hollow Roof Prism Mirrors are constructed using two UV fused silica right-angle prism mirrors that have an ultrafast-enhanced silver reflective coating on their hypotenuses. The resulting dihedral angle between the two coated surfaces is 90° ± 10 arcsec. Thorlabs also offers hollow roof prism mirrors with a variety of other coatings.
The unmounted HRS1015-AG allows for simple positioning within an optical system, and can be mounted using a kinematic platform mount and clamping arm. The mirror in the HR1015-AG is premounted in a Ø1" unthreaded aluminum housing and can be mounted into Ø1" optical mounts or a threaded SM1 (1.035"-40) lens tube with the use of SM1RR retaining rings.
Designed to reflect light that is externally incident on the hypotenuse of the prisms, these hollow roof prism mirrors are ideal for use as a retroreflector in applications where refraction, chromatic aberrations, material absorption, or front surface reflections from standard prisms are undesirable. The 180° reflection of the light is independent of the incident angle of the incoming light, as illustrated in the image to the left.