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Half-Wave Liquid Crystal Retarders with Temperature Control
In their nematic phase, liquid crystal molecules have an ordered orientation, which together with the stretched shape of the molecules creates an optical anisotropy. When an electric field is applied, the molecules align to the field and the level of birefringence is controlled by the tilting of the LC molecules.
Thorlabs' Thermally Stabilized Half-Wave Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVR) use a nematic liquid crystal cell to function as a variable wave plate. The absence of moving parts provides quick switching times on the order of milliseconds (see the Switching Time tab for details). These liquid crystal retarders feature an integrated heater which will hold the temperature of the retarder constant to within ±0.1 °C when used with our TC200 temperature controller. Temperature stabilization provides constant retardance even if the ambient temperature changes and also allows for faster switching times. A Y-cable is provided, which allows these retarders to be used directly with our LCC25 liquid crystal controller and TC200 temperature controller (both sold below).
AR coatings are available for three wavelength ranges: 350 - 700 nm, 650 - 1050 nm, or 1050 - 1700 nm (see the Performance tab for transmission and retardance data). These retarders feature a Ø10 mm clear aperture and have an external SM1 thread, making them compatible with any of our SM1 mounts and lens tubes.
LC Retarder Performance
In their nematic phase, liquid crystals molecules have an ordered orientation, which together with the stretched shape of the molecules, creates an optical anisotropy. When an electric field is applied, the molecules align to the field and the level of effective retardance is controlled by the tilting of the LC molecules. To minimize effects due to ions in the material, an LC device must be driven using an alternating voltage. Our LCC25 controller is designed to minimize the DC bias in the driving signal in the operating range of 0 V to 25 V.
Due to changes in the molecular polarizability, the LC material exhibits higher chromatic dispersion at short wavelengths and comparably small chromatic dispersion at long wavelengths. To account for this, we provide the retardance data at one or two select wavelengths within the product's wavelength range in the table to the right.
Additionally, the LC retardation also depends on the temperature of the device. As temperature increases, the retardation decreases with it. However, as seen in the Switching Time tab, the switching speed of the LC improves at higher temperatures. Generally, the LC's refractive indices (both ordinary and extraordinary) change more drastically as temperature nears the LC's clearing temperature. As such, we choose to use materials with a high clearing temperature to minimize the temperature dependence when used at room temperature.
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Graph shows variation in retardance over a period of 154 weeks.
Our liquid crystal retarders exhibit consistent performance over time. The graph to the right shows the retardance vs. voltage for a single LCC1112-A three-quarter wave retarder, driven by our LCC25 liquid crystal controller over 154 weeks. The retardance was tested once per week and varied only slightly over the testing period. For the complete set of data from testing each week, please click below to download the full data file.
The graph below to the left shows that the retardance varies only slightly at a constant voltage, while the graph below to the right shows that the voltage varies only slightly at a constant retardance. Similar consistency in performance can also be expected for our other models of retarders. To maximize the long-term stability of our retarders, we recommend always using the LCC25 controller. It is specifically designed to reduce the DC voltage offset, thus minimizing charge buildup and maximizing stability.
LC Retarders Switching Time
Liquid crystal retarders feature a short switching time compared to mechanical variable wave plates due to the lack of moving parts. The switching time of a liquid crystal retarder depends on several variables, some of which are controlled in the manufacturing process, and some by the user.
In general, liquid crystal retarders will always switch faster when changing from a high to a low birefringence value. Additionally, the higher the operating temperature is, the faster the retarder will switch from one state to another due to the decreased viscosity at the higher temperature.
For any given retarder, the switching speed will always be faster at higher voltages. If faster switching speeds are desired, we recommend using the retarder together with a fixed wave plate so that the retarder can be used at a larger voltage.
In addition, the material's viscosity and hence the switching speed also depend on temperature of the LC material. As can be seen below, the switching speed can increase by as much as two times by heating the LC retarder. Our standard LC retarders are designed to work at temperatures up to 50 °C, where they can still maintain the specified retardation. If additional speed is required, the retarders can work at temperatures up to 70 °C, but the maximum retardation value will be lower.
The switching speed is also directly proportional to the thickness of the LC retarder, the rotational viscosity of the LC material, and the dielectric anisotropy of the LC material. However, since each of those variables affects other operating parameters as well, our LC retarders are designed to optimize overall performance, with a special emphasis on switching time. We also offer custom and OEM LC retarders optimized for other parameters, as well as faster liquid crystal retarders. See the Custom Capabilities tab above, or contact Tech Support for details.
Sample Switching Times at Various Temperatures
Switching times were tested by measuring the rise time from V1 to V2 and the fall time from V2 to V1 with the liquid crystal retarder being held at the specified temperature. V1 is fixed at 10 V for all the tests, and V2 is the voltage at which the retardation is the maximum specified value for the retarder (1/2 λ). Please note that switching times at lower voltages (for instance, if V1=5 V) are longer than the switching times specified below.
In order to precisely align the axis of the liquid crystal cell, mount the retarder in an appropriate rotation mount (e.g. the RSP1 or the CRM1P for our Ø10 mm clear aperture retarders and RSP2 or the LCRM2 for our Ø20 mm clear aperture retarders). Then set up a detector or power meter to monitor the transmission of a beam through a pair of crossed linear polarizers. Next place the LC retarder between two crossed polarizers with the slow axis aligned with the transmission axis of the first polarizer. Then slowly rotate it until the transmitted intensity is minimized. In this configuration, the LC retarder is ready for phase modulation applications.
To operate as a light intensity modulator or shutter, again find the minimum transmitted intensity as prescribed above. Once the minimum is found, rotate the retarder by ±45°. This will maximize the transmitted intensity through the crossed polarizers for most LC retarders (e.g., zero-order quarter- or half-wave plates). However, this rule of thumb does not rigidly hold for multi-wave phase retarders using broadband sources due to the wavelength dependency of the retardation.
The slow (extraordinary) axis of the liquid crystal retarder corresponds to the orientation of the long axis of the liquid crystal molecules when no voltage is being applied. Applying a voltage will cause the orientation direction of the liquid crystal molecules to rotate out of the plane of the drawing, changing the retardation. Thorlabs LC retarders are nematic liquid crystal devices, which must be driven with an AC voltage in order to prevent the accumulation of ions and free charges, which degrades performance and can cause the device to burn out.
Polarization Control with a Liquid Crystal Variable Retarder
Pure Phase Retarder with Liquid Crystal Variable Retarder
Damage Threshold Data for Thorlabs' Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders
The specifications to the right are measured data for Thorlabs' Liquid Crystal Variable Retarders.
Laser Induced Damage Threshold Tutorial
The following is a general overview of how laser induced damage thresholds are measured and how the values may be utilized in determining the appropriateness of an optic for a given application. When choosing optics, it is important to understand the Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) of the optics being used. The LIDT for an optic greatly depends on the type of laser you are using. Continuous wave (CW) lasers typically cause damage from thermal effects (absorption either in the coating or in the substrate). Pulsed lasers, on the other hand, often strip electrons from the lattice structure of an optic before causing thermal damage. Note that the guideline presented here assumes room temperature operation and optics in new condition (i.e., within scratch-dig spec, surface free of contamination, etc.). Because dust or other particles on the surface of an optic can cause damage at lower thresholds, we recommend keeping surfaces clean and free of debris. For more information on cleaning optics, please see our Optics Cleaning tutorial.
Thorlabs' LIDT testing is done in compliance with ISO/DIS 11254 and ISO 21254 specifications.
The photograph above is a protected aluminum-coated mirror after LIDT testing. In this particular test, it handled 0.43 J/cm2 (1064 nm, 10 ns pulse, 10 Hz, Ø1.000 mm) before damage.
According to the test, the damage threshold of the mirror was 2.00 J/cm2 (532 nm, 10 ns pulse, 10 Hz, Ø0.803 mm). Please keep in mind that these tests are performed on clean optics, as dirt and contamination can significantly lower the damage threshold of a component. While the test results are only representative of one coating run, Thorlabs specifies damage threshold values that account for coating variances.
Continuous Wave and Long-Pulse Lasers
When an optic is damaged by a continuous wave (CW) laser, it is usually due to the melting of the surface as a result of absorbing the laser's energy or damage to the optical coating (antireflection) . Pulsed lasers with pulse lengths longer than 1 µs can be treated as CW lasers for LIDT discussions.
When pulse lengths are between 1 ns and 1 µs, laser-induced damage can occur either because of absorption or a dielectric breakdown (therefore, a user must check both CW and pulsed LIDT). Absorption is either due to an intrinsic property of the optic or due to surface irregularities; thus LIDT values are only valid for optics meeting or exceeding the surface quality specifications given by a manufacturer. While many optics can handle high power CW lasers, cemented (e.g., achromatic doublets) or highly absorptive (e.g., ND filters) optics tend to have lower CW damage thresholds. These lower thresholds are due to absorption or scattering in the cement or metal coating.
Pulsed lasers with high pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) may behave similarly to CW beams. Unfortunately, this is highly dependent on factors such as absorption and thermal diffusivity, so there is no reliable method for determining when a high PRF laser will damage an optic due to thermal effects. For beams with a high PRF both the average and peak powers must be compared to the equivalent CW power. Additionally, for highly transparent materials, there is little to no drop in the LIDT with increasing PRF.
In order to use the specified CW damage threshold of an optic, it is necessary to know the following:
Thorlabs expresses LIDT for CW lasers as a linear power density measured in W/cm. In this regime, the LIDT given as a linear power density can be applied to any beam diameter; one does not need to compute an adjusted LIDT to adjust for changes in spot size, as demonstrated by the graph to the right. Average linear power density can be calculated using the equation below.
The calculation above assumes a uniform beam intensity profile. You must now consider hotspots in the beam or other non-uniform intensity profiles and roughly calculate a maximum power density. For reference, a Gaussian beam typically has a maximum power density that is twice that of the uniform beam (see lower right).
Now compare the maximum power density to that which is specified as the LIDT for the optic. If the optic was tested at a wavelength other than your operating wavelength, the damage threshold must be scaled appropriately. A good rule of thumb is that the damage threshold has a linear relationship with wavelength such that as you move to shorter wavelengths, the damage threshold decreases (i.e., a LIDT of 10 W/cm at 1310 nm scales to 5 W/cm at 655 nm):
While this rule of thumb provides a general trend, it is not a quantitative analysis of LIDT vs wavelength. In CW applications, for instance, damage scales more strongly with absorption in the coating and substrate, which does not necessarily scale well with wavelength. While the above procedure provides a good rule of thumb for LIDT values, please contact Tech Support if your wavelength is different from the specified LIDT wavelength. If your power density is less than the adjusted LIDT of the optic, then the optic should work for your application.
Please note that we have a buffer built in between the specified damage thresholds online and the tests which we have done, which accommodates variation between batches. Upon request, we can provide individual test information and a testing certificate. The damage analysis will be carried out on a similar optic (customer's optic will not be damaged). Testing may result in additional costs or lead times. Contact Tech Support for more information.
As previously stated, pulsed lasers typically induce a different type of damage to the optic than CW lasers. Pulsed lasers often do not heat the optic enough to damage it; instead, pulsed lasers produce strong electric fields capable of inducing dielectric breakdown in the material. Unfortunately, it can be very difficult to compare the LIDT specification of an optic to your laser. There are multiple regimes in which a pulsed laser can damage an optic and this is based on the laser's pulse length. The highlighted columns in the table below outline the relevant pulse lengths for our specified LIDT values.
Pulses shorter than 10-9 s cannot be compared to our specified LIDT values with much reliability. In this ultra-short-pulse regime various mechanics, such as multiphoton-avalanche ionization, take over as the predominate damage mechanism . In contrast, pulses between 10-7 s and 10-4 s may cause damage to an optic either because of dielectric breakdown or thermal effects. This means that both CW and pulsed damage thresholds must be compared to the laser beam to determine whether the optic is suitable for your application.
When comparing an LIDT specified for a pulsed laser to your laser, it is essential to know the following:
The energy density of your beam should be calculated in terms of J/cm2. The graph to the right shows why expressing the LIDT as an energy density provides the best metric for short pulse sources. In this regime, the LIDT given as an energy density can be applied to any beam diameter; one does not need to compute an adjusted LIDT to adjust for changes in spot size. This calculation assumes a uniform beam intensity profile. You must now adjust this energy density to account for hotspots or other nonuniform intensity profiles and roughly calculate a maximum energy density. For reference a Gaussian beam typically has a maximum energy density that is twice that of the 1/e2 beam.
Now compare the maximum energy density to that which is specified as the LIDT for the optic. If the optic was tested at a wavelength other than your operating wavelength, the damage threshold must be scaled appropriately . A good rule of thumb is that the damage threshold has an inverse square root relationship with wavelength such that as you move to shorter wavelengths, the damage threshold decreases (i.e., a LIDT of 1 J/cm2 at 1064 nm scales to 0.7 J/cm2 at 532 nm):
You now have a wavelength-adjusted energy density, which you will use in the following step.
Beam diameter is also important to know when comparing damage thresholds. While the LIDT, when expressed in units of J/cm², scales independently of spot size; large beam sizes are more likely to illuminate a larger number of defects which can lead to greater variances in the LIDT . For data presented here, a <1 mm beam size was used to measure the LIDT. For beams sizes greater than 5 mm, the LIDT (J/cm2) will not scale independently of beam diameter due to the larger size beam exposing more defects.
The pulse length must now be compensated for. The longer the pulse duration, the more energy the optic can handle. For pulse widths between 1 - 100 ns, an approximation is as follows:
Use this formula to calculate the Adjusted LIDT for an optic based on your pulse length. If your maximum energy density is less than this adjusted LIDT maximum energy density, then the optic should be suitable for your application. Keep in mind that this calculation is only used for pulses between 10-9 s and 10-7 s. For pulses between 10-7 s and 10-4 s, the CW LIDT must also be checked before deeming the optic appropriate for your application.
Please note that we have a buffer built in between the specified damage thresholds online and the tests which we have done, which accommodates variation between batches. Upon request, we can provide individual test information and a testing certificate. Contact Tech Support for more information.
 R. M. Wood, Optics and Laser Tech. 29, 517 (1998).
The LCC25 liquid crystal variable retarder and polarization rotator controller produces a 2000 Hz square wave output with an amplitude that can be varied from 0 to 25 Vrms. The output amplitude can be set via the front panel controls, the USB interface, and the external input. Both the front panel and USB interface allow the user to select two voltage levels, Voltage 1 and Voltage 2. When the LCC25 is operated in the constant voltage mode, the output of the controller will be a 2000 Hz square wave with an amplitude equal to either of the two set voltage levels (Figure A). If the LCC25 controller is operating in the modulation mode, the output 2000 Hz square wave will be modulated in amplitude between the two voltage settings with a modulation frequency that can be set by the user to be between 0.5 and 150 Hz (Figure B).
The modulated mode can be used to measure the response time of the LC retarder.
External or remote control of the LCC25 is possible using the external input or the USB interface. The external input accepts a 0 to 5 VDC TTL signal that modulates the 0 to 25 Vrms output of the LCC25 between the two set voltages. The USB interface can be used to send line commands to the controller so that the LCC25 can be used in automated lab sequences.
In order to prevent the separation and build up of charges in the liquid crystal layer, the LCC25 will automatically detect and correct any DC offset in real time to within ±10 mV.
Figure A. A plot of the output voltage of the LCC25 Liquid Crystal Controller when it is being operated in the constant voltage mode.
Figure B. A plot of the output voltage of the LCC25 Liquid Crystal Controller when the output voltage is being modulated between the two set voltages.
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Screen shot of the GUI interface in Modulation Mode.
Software for the LCC25 Controller
Custom Software Development
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Liquid Crystal Cell Seal Application
Thorlabs' Custom Liquid Crystal Capabilities
Thorlabs offers a large variety of liquid crystal retarders from stock, including 1/2-, 3/4-, and full-wave models with a Ø10 mm or Ø20 mm clear aperture as well as 1/2-wave temperature-controlled models. However, we also offer OEM and custom retarders. The retardance range, coating, rubbing angle, temperature stabilization, and size can be customized to meet many unique optical designs. We also offer other custom liquid crystal devices, such as empty LC cells, polarization rotators, and noise eaters. For more information about ordering a custom liquid crystal device, please contact Thorlabs' technical support.
Our engineers work directly with our customers to discuss the specifications and other design aspects of a custom liquid crystal retarder. They will analyze both the design and feasibility to ensure the custom products are manufactured to high-quality standards and in a timely manner.
Polyimide (PI) Coating and Rubbing - Custom Alignment Angle
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Custom Liquid Crystal Cell Without Case
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Liquid Crystal Cell Filling in a Vacuum Chamber
Custom Cell Spacing
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Custom Liquid Crystal Cell Test Setup
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Custom Liquid Crystal Cell Test Result
Here, δ is the retardance in waves, d is the thickness of the LC material, λν is the wavelength of light, and Δn is the birefringence of the LC material used. Thus, for a given wavelength, the retardance is determined by the wall spacing inside the LC cell (i.e., the thickness of LC layer). We offer standard retardance ranges of λ/2 to 30 nm, 3λ/4 to 30 nm, and λ to 30 nm, but higher retardance ranges may also be ordered.
Custom Liquid Crystal Material
Temperature Control/Switching Time
Assembly / Housing
For More Information
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Figure 1: Patterned Retarder with Random Distribution
Thorlabs offers customizable patterned retarders, available in any pattern size from Ø100 µm to Ø2" and any substrate size from Ø5 mm to Ø2". These custom retarders are composed of an array of microretarders, each of which has a fast axis aligned to a different angle than its neighbor. The size and shape of the microretarders are also customizable. They can be as small as 30 µm and in shapes including circles and squares. This control over size and shape of the individual microretarders allows us to construct a large array of various patterned retarders to meet nearly any experimental or device need.
These patterned retarders are constructed from our liquid crystals and liquid crystal polymers. Using photo alignment technology, we can secure the fast axis of each microretarder to any angle within a resolution of <1°. Figures 1 - 3 show examples of our patterned retarders. The figures represent measured results of the patterned retarder captured on an imaging polarimeter and demonstrate that the fast axis orientation of any one individual microretarder can be controlled deterministically and separately from its neighbors.
The manufacturing process for our patterned retarders is controlled completely in house. It begins by preparing the substrate, which is typically N-BK7 or UV fused silica (although other glass substrates may be compatible as well). The substrate is then coated with a layer of photoalignment material and placed in our patterned retarder system where sections are exposed to linearly polarized light to set the fast axis of a microretarder. The area of the exposed sections depends on the desired size of the microretarder; the fast axis can be set between 0° and 180° with a resolution <1°. Once set, the liquid crystal cell is constructed by coating the device with a liquid crystal polymer and curing it with UV light.
Thorlabs' LCP depolarizers provide one example of these patterned retarders. In principle, a truly randomized pattern may be used as a depolarizer, since it scrambles the input polarization spatially. However, such a pattern will also introduce a large amount of diffraction. For our depolarizers, we designed a linearly ramping fast axis angle and retardance that can depolarize both broadband and monochromatic beams down to diameters of 0.5 mm without introducing additional diffraction. For more details, see the webpage for our LCP depolarizers.
By supplying Thorlabs with a drawing of the desired patterned retarder or an excel file of the fast axis distribution, we can construct almost any patterned retarder. We can also produce variable retardance patterned retarders. For more information on creating a patterned retarder, please contact Tech Support.
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Figure 2: Patterned Retarder with a Spiral Distribution
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Figure 3: Patterned Retarder with a Pictoral Distribution
Thorlabs' Ø10 mm clear aperture, temperature-stabilized liquid crystal retarders are available with AR coatings for 350 - 700 nm (LCC1111T-A), 650 - 1050 nm (LCC1111T-B), or 1050 - 1700 nm (LCC1111T-C). The temperature of our retarders can be controlled to ±0.1 °C using the recommended TC200 temperature controller (see graph to the right). Temperature stabilization provides constant retardance even if ambient temperature changes and also allows for faster switching times. A Y-cable is provided, which allows these retarders to be used directly with our LCC25 liquid crystal controller and TC200 temperature controller.
These retarders have an external SM1 thread, making them compatible with any of our internally threaded SM1 optic mounts. The RSP1 mount provides precise rotational adjustment and post mounting capability, while the CRM1P adds 30 mm cage-mounting versatility.
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Back Panel of the LCC25 Liquid Crystal Controller
The LCC25 is a liquid crystal controller compatible with all Thorlabs LC Variable Retarders and Polarization Rotators, as well as being is ideal for driving most other nematic liquid crystal devices. Nematic LC retarders must be driven with an AC voltage in order to prevent the separation and build up of charge, which can cause the device to burn out. In addition to the 2000 Hz AC drive voltage, the LCC25 controller automatically zeros the DC bias across the LC device in order to counteract the buildup of charges. The AC output voltage of the LCC25 controller can be adjusted using the front panel controls, an external 0 - 5 VDC TTL input, and via the USB interface. For more information about the LCC25 controller and for a complete list of its specifications, please see the LC Controller tab.
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Back Panel of the TC200 Heater Controller
The TC200 Heater Controller is a benchtop controller intended for use with resistive heating elements rated up to 18 W, including the heaters in the Temperature-Controlled Liquid Crystal Retarders sold on this page. The unit will display the temperature in either °F, °C, or K, and can be programmed for up to five sequential temperature settings along with associated ramp and hold times for each level. A user programmable maximum temperature limit provides protection to the device being heated and a user-programmable power limit protects the heating element from being over driven. Other safety features include an Open Sensor Alarm that will shut down the driver if the temperature sensing element is missing or becomes disconnected.
Capable of stand-alone operation from a simple keypad interface, the TC200 can be interfaced with a PC using a standard USB Type B connector using our TC200 Application Program, LabVIEW drivers, LabWindows drivers, or using a simple command-line interface from any terminal window.
The TC200 is shipped with a 120 VAC power cord for use in the US while the TC200-EC is shipped with a 230 VAC power cord for use in Europe. If you require a power cord for another country, please contact your local sales office.