Lithium Niobate Electro-Optic Modulators, Fiber-Coupled (830 nm - 1090 nm)


  • Up to 40 GHz Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) Intensity Modulators
  • 850 nm or 1060 nm Wavelength Operation
  • Annealed Proton-Exchange Waveguides
  • Fiber-Coupled, High-Speed Modulation

LNX1020F

1060 nm 20 GHz Intensity Modulator, FC/PC Connectors

LNX8540A

850 nm 40 GHz Intensity Modulator, FC/APC Connectors

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X-Cut Lithium Niobate Cross Section
Click to Enlarge

The cross-section of an X-Cut LiNbO3 intensity modulator with annealed proton-exchange waveguide technology. The transverse electric (TE)-polarized mode is shown in the upper right.
Lithium Niobate Intensity Modulator Diagram
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This operational diagram of an intensity modulator shows the waveguide (blue lines) splitting into two paths embedded in the surface of the LiNbO3 (green). The input light is first affected by the modulating RF drive voltage and then the DC bias voltage, as shown by the boxed yellow regions.

APE Waveguide Technology

APE waveguides are formed by exchanging lithium ions with a proton source such as H+. This is accomplished by submerging LiNbO3 in an acid melt rich in H+ ions, resulting in a change in the material's refractive index. Following this, the waveguides are annealed at high temperature to remove excess hydrogen from the exchanged region, leading to a stable waveguide. This annealing stage also transforms the step-index waveguides to gradient-index waveguides with greatly reduced single-mode propagation loss.

The APE process causes an increase in the extraordinary refractive index, but a decrease in the ordinary refractive index, meaning only the transverse electric (TE)-polarized mode is allowed to propagate. APE waveguides have significantly reduced photorefractive sensitivity compared to titanium-indiffused waveguides, enabling high-speed modulation at shorter wavelengths.

Features

  • 850 nm or 1060 nm Wavelength Operation
  • Annealed Proton-Exchange Waveguides
  • X-Cut Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3)
  • Low Optical Insertion Loss: ≤5 dB
  • Long-Term Bias Stability
  • Reduced Photorefractive Sensitivity Compared to Titanium-Indiffused Waveguides
  • Polarization-Maintaining (PM) Input and Output Fiber Pigtails
  • FC/PC or FC/APC Fiber Connectors

Common Applications

  • Quantum Optics
  • High-Speed Telecommunications
  • Test and Measurement

Thorlabs offers lithium niobate (LiNbO3) intensity modulators for 850 nm or 1060 nm wavelength applications. These high-performance devices are based on annealed proton-exchange (APE) waveguide technology, offer low optical insertion loss of ≤5 dB, and are ideal for developing high-speed modulation systems.

The modulators on this page are fabricated from X-cut LiNbO3 (see the example diagram to the top right). A symmetrical design is employed to minimize frequency-chirp in the modulated signal in X-cut intensity modulators. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure is used to allow modulation of the optical output power of the LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators, as shown by the operational diagram to the right. The devices include electrical connections for the modulation driving signal and for biasing the modulator.

The input and output fiber pigtails of the modulators come with polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber that are terminated with FC/PC or FC/APC connectors. The narrow key of the fiber connector is aligned to the slow axis of the modulator. Please note that mixed FC/PC and FC/APC connectors can be provided upon request. For more information on custom configurations (e.g., connectors, wavelengths) and quotes, please contact Tech Support.

The performance of each modulator is factory tested, and a test result summary is included with each device. The test results and tabular data can be downloaded by clicking on the red Docs icon () next to the Item # and entering your modulator's serial number under "Download Serial Item Data".

Our MX40G-850 fiber-optic, calibrated electrical-to-optical converter incorporates the LNX8540x modulators. For more information on custom integrated solutions and quotes for configurations that combine modulators with lasers, bias controllers, and amplifiers, please contact us.

850 nm 40 GHz Intensity Modulator Pin Diagram
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LNX8540F and LNX8540A Intensity Modulators Pin Diagram
1060 nm 20 GHz Intensity Modulator Pin Diagram
Click to Enlarge

LNX1020F and LNX1020A Intensity Modulators Pin Diagram

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850 nm Intensity Modulators

Applications

  • Analog Modulation Up to 40 GHz
  • WDM Transmission
  • Quantum Optics
  • High-Speed Telecommunications
  • Test and Measurement

The LNX8540F and LNX8540A high-speed intensity modulators have FC/PC or FC/APC connectors, respectively, and provide up to 40 GHz of modulation over the 830 nm to 870 nm operating range. The RF port input connector is a 1.85 mm female connector.

Item # Info Operating
Wavelength
Operating
Frequency Range
Optical
Insertion Lossa
Optical
Return Loss
Optical Extinction
Ratio (@ DC)b
Optical
Input Powerc
RF Vπd Crystal
Orientation
Connector
Type
LNX8540F info 830 nm - 870 nm DC to 40 GHz (Min) ≤5 dB
(4.5 dB Typ.)
≥30 dB ≥20 dB ≤25 mW ≤5.3 V
(4.8 V Typ.)
X-Cut FC/PC
LNX8540A info FC/APC
  • 20 mW Input, Peak Bias, Without Connector
  • 20 mW Input
  • Absolute Maximum Rating
  • @ 1 GHz
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
LNX8540F Support Documentation
LNX8540F40 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 830 nm - 870 nm
$5,145.00
Today
LNX8540A Support Documentation
LNX8540A40 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 830 nm - 870 nm
$5,145.00
Today

1060 nm Intensity Modulators

Applications

  • Analog Modulation Up to 20 GHz
  • RF-Over-Fiber (RFOF) and Microwave Photonics
  • Pulse Generation for Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (YDFA)
  • Quantum Optics
  • High-Speed Telecommunications
  • Test and Measurement

The LNX1020F and LNX1020A high-speed intensity modulators have FC/PC or FC/APC connectors, respectively, and provide up to 20 GHz of modulation over the 1030 nm to 1090 nm operating range. The RF port input connector is a field-replaceable 2.92 mm female connector.

Item # Info Operating
Wavelength
Operating
Frequency Range
Optical
Insertion Lossa
Optical
Return Loss
Optical Extinction
Ratio (@ DC)b
Optical
Input Powerc
RF Vπd Crystal
Orientation
Connector
Type
LNX1020F info 1030 nm - 1090 nm DC to 20 GHz (Min) ≤5 dB
(4.5 dB Typ.)
≥30 dB ≥20 dB ≤100 mW ≤4.5 V
(4.0 V Typ.)
X-Cut FC/PC
LNX1020A info FC/APC
  • 20 mW Input, Peak Bias, Without Connector
  • 20 mW Input
  • Absolute Maximum Rating
  • @ 1 GHz
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available
LNX1020F Support Documentation
LNX1020F20 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/PC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1090 nm
$4,515.00
Today
LNX1020A Support Documentation
LNX1020A20 GHz Intensity Modulator, X-Cut, FC/APC Connectors, 1030 nm - 1090 nm
$4,515.00
7-10 Days