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470 nm Single Mode Fused Fiber Optic Couplers / Taps
50:50 Coupler with FC/APC Connector
90:10 Coupler with FC/PC Connector
Use for Splitting Signals
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Each coupler is engraved with the Item #, serial number, and key specifications for easy identification. The coupling ratios listed below correspond to the ratio of the measured output power from the white (signal output) port to the red (tap output) port.
Thorlabs' Single Mode 1x2 Fiber Optic Couplers, also known as taps, have a flat spectral response across the entire specified range. Wideband couplers that can be used at 470 nm are featured below. These couplers are available with a ±40 nm bandwidth and a coupling ratio of 50:50, 75:25, 90:10, or 99:1. These couplers can handle a max power of 50 mW with connectors or unterminated (bare) fiber and 100 mW when spliced (see the Damage Threshold tab for more details).
1x2 couplers are manufactured using the same process as our 2x2 fiber optic couplers, but have only one input port for simplified use and cable management. These couplers are ideal for applications where light is split from the input port into two output ports at the specified coupling ratio; unlike WDMs, they are generally not recommended for beam combining applications. The unused port is internally terminated within the coupler housing in a manner that minimizes back reflections (please see the 1x2 Coupler Tutorial tab for details).
Thorlabs provides an individual test data sheet with each coupler that includes coupling data and performance graphs. These graphs show data within the designed bandwidth and also extend outside of the specified bandwidth, covering the entire wavelength range where the coupling ratio meets the specified tolerance. A sample data sheet for our 470 nm wideband couplers can be viewed here. Our couplers have undergone extensive testing to ensure they meet or surpass Telcordia requirements; please see the Reliability Testing tab for details.
These couplers are offered from stock with FC/PC or FC/APC connectors, as outlined in the tables below. Fiber leads are jacketed in Ø900 µm Hytrel® tubing and the leads are 0.8 m long. Custom coupler configurations with other wavelengths, fiber types, coupling ratios, connectors, or port configurations are also available. Please contact Tech Support with inquiries.
Our complete selection of 1x2 SM couplers is outlined in the table to the right and on the SM Coupler Guide tab. Thorlabs also offers fiber optic couplers for 470 nm in a 2x2 configuration; they can be found here.
Definition of 1x2 Fused Fiber Optic Coupler Specifications
This tab provides a brief explanation of how we determine several key specifications for our 1x2 couplers. 1x2 couplers are manufactured using the same process as our 2x2 fiber optic couplers, except the second input port is internally terminated using a proprietary method that minimizes back reflections. For combining light of different wavelengths, Thorlabs offers a line of single mode wavelength division multiplexers (WDMs). The ports on our 1x2 couplers are configured as shown in the schematic below.
Excess loss in dB is determined by the ratio of the total input power to the total output power:
Pport1 is the input power at port 1 and Pport2+Pport3 is the total output power from Ports 2 and 3. All powers are expressed in mW.
Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL)
The polarization dependent loss is defined as the ratio of the maximum and minimum transmissions due to polarization states in couplers. This specification pertains only to couplers not designed for maintaining polarization. PDL is always specified in decibels (dB), and can be calculated with the following equation:
where Pmax is the maximum power able to be transmitted through the coupler when scanning across all possible polarization states. Pmin is the minimum transmission across those same states.
Optical Return Loss (ORL) / Directivity
The directivity refers to the fraction of input light that is lost in the internally terminated fiber end within the coupler housing when port 1 is used as the input. It can be calculated in units of dB using the following equation:
where Pport1 and Pport1b are the optical powers (in mW) in port 1 and the internally terminated fiber, respectively. This output is the result of back reflection at the junction of the legs of the coupler and represents a loss in the total light output at ports 2 and 3. For a 50:50 coupler, the directivity is equal to the optical return loss (ORL).
The insertion loss is defined as the ratio of the input power to the output power at one of the output legs of the coupler (signal or tap). Insertion loss is always specified in decibels (dB). It is generally defined using the equation below:
where Pin and Pout are the input and output powers (in mW). For our 1x2 couplers, the insertion loss specification is provided for both signal and tap outputs; our specifications always list insertion loss for the signal output first. To define the insertion loss for a specific output (port 2 or port 3), the equation is rewritten as:
Insertion loss inherently includes both coupling (e.g., light transferred to the other output leg) and excess loss (e.g., light lost from the coupler) effects. The maximum allowed insertion loss for each output, signal and tap, are both specified. Because the insertion loss in each output is correlated to light coupled to the other output, no coupler will ever have the maximum insertion loss in both outputs simultaneously.
Calculating Insertion Loss using Power Expressed in dBm
Then, the insertion loss in dB can be calculated as follows:
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A graphical representation of the coupling ratio calculation.
Insertion loss (in dB) is the ratio of the input power to the output power from each leg of the coupler as a function of wavelength. It captures both the coupling ratio and the excess loss. The coupling ratio is calculated from the measured insertion loss. Coupling ratio (in %) is the ratio of the optical power from each output port (ports 2 and 3) to the sum of the total power of both output ports as a function of wavelength. Path A represents light traveling from port 1 to port 2 while Path B represents light traveling from port 1 to port 3. It is not impacted by spectral features such as the water absorption region because both output legs are affected equally.
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A graphical representation of the Uniformity calculation.
The uniformity is also calculated from the measured insertion loss. Uniformity is the variation (in dB) of the insertion loss over the bandwidth. It is a measure of how evenly the insertion loss is distributed over the spectral range. The uniformity of Path A is the difference between the value of highest insertion loss and the solid red insertion loss curve (in the Insertion Plot above). The uniformity of Path B is the difference between the solid blue insertion loss curve and the value of lowest insertion loss.
The fiber to create the first branch (Path A) of the coupler is connected to a source on one side and a switch leading to an Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA) on the other.
The spectrum of the source through the fiber and switch is measured using the OSA and zeroed.
The fiber to form the second branch (Path B) of the coupler is connected to the source and to the second port of the switch leading to the OSA. The spectrum of the source through the fiber and switch is also measured and zeroed.
The two fibers are fused on a manufacturing station to create the coupler structure. During the fusing process, the output from both legs of the coupler is monitored on the OSA. Coupler fusing stops once the coupler reaches the desired coupling ratio, excess loss, and insertion loss specifications.
For 1x2 couplers, one of the fiber ends is terminated within the coupler housing. The termination is done in a manner that minimizes back reflections from this output.
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Insertion loss (in dB) is the ratio of the input power to the output power from each leg of the coupler as a function of wavelength. It captures both the coupling ratio and the excess loss. The coupling ratio is calculated from the measured insertion loss. Coupling ratio (in %) is the ratio of the optical power from each output port (A and B) to the sum of the total power of both output ports as a function of wavelength. It is not impacted by spectral features such as the water absorption region because both output legs are affected equally. Persistence plots showing the coupling ratio of our wideband couplers can be viewed by clicking on the blue info icons below.
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The uniformity is also calculated from the measured insertion loss. Uniformity is the variation (in dB) of the insertion loss over the bandwidth. It is a measure of how evenly the insertion loss is distributed over the spectral range. The uniformity of Path A is the difference between the value of highest insertion loss and the solid red insertion loss curve (in the Insertion Plot above). The uniformity of Path B is the difference between the solid blue insertion loss curve and the value of lowest insertion loss. Persistence plots showing the uniformity of our wideband couplers can be viewed by clicking on the blue info icons below.
Our 2x2 1300 nm Single Mode Fused Fiber Optic Couplers have undergone a reliability testing program inspired by GR-1221-CORE (Generic Reliability Assurance Requirements for Passive Optical Components, Issue 2). The selected test conditions are for uncontrolled environments and are some of the most stringent test conditions for passive components. The results of this testing program qualify these couplers and their manufacturing process for volume production and use in uncontrolled environments. To download a PDF of this test report, please click here.
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Close-Up of Mechanical Shock Test Setup
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SM-105 Mechanical Shock
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Vibration Test Setup
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Damp Heat Testing Setup
Testing ConditionsThis test program consisted of five test groups with a sample size of 11 per group. Testing was conducted with a 1310 nm laser source input into 1310 tap couplers using a 1x16 waveguide coupler. The two outputs of every coupler were measured by a PM100USB power meter with an S154C sensor head.
Laser-Induced Damage in Silica Optical Fibers
The following tutorial details damage mechanisms relevant to unterminated (bare) fiber, terminated optical fiber, and other fiber components from laser light sources. These mechanisms include damage that occurs at the air / glass interface (when free-space coupling or when using connectors) and in the optical fiber itself. A fiber component, such as a bare fiber, patch cable, or fused coupler, may have multiple potential avenues for damage (e.g., connectors, fiber end faces, and the device itself). The maximum power that a fiber can handle will always be limited by the lowest limit of any of these damage mechanisms.
While the damage threshold can be estimated using scaling relations and general rules, absolute damage thresholds in optical fibers are very application dependent and user specific. Users can use this guide to estimate a safe power level that minimizes the risk of damage. Following all appropriate preparation and handling guidelines, users should be able to operate a fiber component up to the specified maximum power level; if no maximum is specified for a component, users should abide by the "practical safe level" described below for safe operation of the component. Factors that can reduce power handling and cause damage to a fiber component include, but are not limited to, misalignment during fiber coupling, contamination of the fiber end face, or imperfections in the fiber itself. For further discussion about an optical fiber’s power handling abilities for a specific application, please contact Thorlabs’ Tech Support.
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Undamaged Fiber End
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Damaged Fiber End
There are several potential damage mechanisms that can occur at the air / glass interface. Light is incident on this interface when free-space coupling or when two fibers are mated using optical connectors. High-intensity light can damage the end face leading to reduced power handling and permanent damage to the fiber. For fibers terminated with optical connectors where the connectors are fixed to the fiber ends using epoxy, the heat generated by high-intensity light can burn the epoxy and leave residues on the fiber facet directly in the beam path.
Damage Mechanisms on the Bare Fiber End Face
Damage mechanisms on a fiber end face can be modeled similarly to bulk optics, and industry-standard damage thresholds for UV Fused Silica substrates can be applied to silica-based fiber. However, unlike bulk optics, the relevant surface areas and beam diameters involved at the air / glass interface of an optical fiber are very small, particularly for coupling into single mode (SM) fiber. therefore, for a given power density, the power incident on the fiber needs to be lower for a smaller beam diameter.
The table to the right lists two thresholds for optical power densities: a theoretical damage threshold and a "practical safe level". In general, the theoretical damage threshold represents the estimated maximum power density that can be incident on the fiber end face without risking damage with very good fiber end face and coupling conditions. The "practical safe level" power density represents minimal risk of fiber damage. Operating a fiber or component beyond the practical safe level is possible, but users must follow the appropriate handling instructions and verify performance at low powers prior to use.
Calculating the Effective Area for Single Mode and Multimode Fibers
As an example, SM400 single mode fiber has a mode field diameter (MFD) of ~Ø3 µm operating at 400 nm, while the MFD for SMF-28 Ultra single mode fiber operating at 1550 nm is Ø10.5 µm. The effective area for these fibers can be calculated as follows:
SM400 Fiber: Area = Pi x (MFD/2)2 = Pi x (1.5 µm)2 = 7.07 µm2 = 7.07 x 10-8 cm2
To estimate the power level that a fiber facet can handle, the power density is multiplied by the effective area. Please note that this calculation assumes a uniform intensity profile, but most laser beams exhibit a Gaussian-like shape within single mode fiber, resulting in a higher power density at the center of the beam compared to the edges. Therefore, these calculations will slightly overestimate the power corresponding to the damage threshold or the practical safe level. Using the estimated power densities assuming a CW light source, we can determine the corresponding power levels as:
SM400 Fiber: 7.07 x 10-8 cm2 x 1 MW/cm2 = 7.1 x 10-8 MW = 71 mW (Theoretical Damage Threshold)
SMF-28 Ultra Fiber: 8.66 x 10-7 cm2 x 1 MW/cm2 = 8.7 x 10-7 MW = 870 mW (Theoretical Damage Threshold)
The effective area of a multimode (MM) fiber is defined by the core diameter, which is typically far larger than the MFD of an SM fiber. For optimal coupling, Thorlabs recommends focusing a beam to a spot roughly 70 - 80% of the core diameter. The larger effective area of MM fibers lowers the power density on the fiber end face, allowing higher optical powers (typically on the order of kilowatts) to be coupled into multimode fiber without damage.
Damage Mechanisms Related to Ferrule / Connector Termination
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Plot showing approximate input power that can be incident on a single mode silica optical fiber with a termination. Each line shows the estimated power level due to a specific damage mechanism. The maximum power handling is limited by the lowest power level from all relevant damage mechanisms (indicated by a solid line).
Fibers terminated with optical connectors have additional power handling considerations. Fiber is typically terminated using epoxy to bond the fiber to a ceramic or steel ferrule. When light is coupled into the fiber through a connector, light that does not enter the core and propagate down the fiber is scattered into the outer layers of the fiber, into the ferrule, and the epoxy used to hold the fiber in the ferrule. If the light is intense enough, it can burn the epoxy, causing it to vaporize and deposit a residue on the face of the connector. This results in localized absorption sites on the fiber end face that reduce coupling efficiency and increase scattering, causing further damage.
For several reasons, epoxy-related damage is dependent on the wavelength. In general, light scatters more strongly at short wavelengths than at longer wavelengths. Misalignment when coupling is also more likely due to the small MFD of short-wavelength SM fiber that also produces more scattered light.
To minimize the risk of burning the epoxy, fiber connectors can be constructed to have an epoxy-free air gap between the optical fiber and ferrule near the fiber end face. Our high-power multimode fiber patch cables use connectors with this design feature.
Determining Power Handling with Multiple Damage Mechanisms
When fiber cables or components have multiple avenues for damage (e.g., fiber patch cables), the maximum power handling is always limited by the lowest damage threshold that is relevant to the fiber component. In general, this represents the highest input power that can be incident on the patch cable end face and not the coupled output power.
As an illustrative example, the graph to the right shows an estimate of the power handling limitations of a single mode fiber patch cable due to damage to the fiber end face and damage via an optical connector. The total input power handling of a terminated fiber at a given wavelength is limited by the lower of the two limitations at any given wavelength (indicated by the solid lines). A single mode fiber operating at around 488 nm is primarily limited by damage to the fiber end face (blue solid line), but fibers operating at 1550 nm are limited by damage to the optical connector (red solid line).
In the case of a multimode fiber, the effective mode area is defined by the core diameter, which is larger than the effective mode area for SM fiber. This results in a lower power density on the fiber end face and allows higher optical powers (on the order of kilowatts) to be coupled into the fiber without damage (not shown in graph). However, the damage limit of the ferrule / connector termination remains unchanged and as a result, the maximum power handling for a multimode fiber is limited by the ferrule and connector termination.
Please note that these are rough estimates of power levels where damage is very unlikely with proper handling and alignment procedures. It is worth noting that optical fibers are frequently used at power levels above those described here. However, these applications typically require expert users and testing at lower powers first to minimize risk of damage. Even still, optical fiber components should be considered a consumable lab supply if used at high power levels.
In addition to damage mechanisms at the air / glass interface, optical fibers also display power handling limitations due to damage mechanisms within the optical fiber itself. These limitations will affect all fiber components as they are intrinsic to the fiber itself. Two categories of damage within the fiber are damage from bend losses and damage from photodarkening.
A special category of optical fiber, called double-clad fiber, can reduce the risk of bend-loss damage by allowing the fiber’s cladding (2nd layer) to also function as a waveguide in addition to the core. By making the critical angle of the cladding/coating interface higher than the critical angle of the core/clad interface, light that escapes the core is loosely confined within the cladding. It will then leak out over a distance of centimeters or meters instead of at one localized spot within the fiber, minimizing the risk of damage. Thorlabs manufactures and sells 0.22 NA double-clad multimode fiber, which boasts very high, megawatt range power handling.
Even with the above strategies in place, all fibers eventually experience photodarkening when used with UV or short-wavelength light, and thus, fibers used at these wavelengths should be considered consumables.
General Cleaning and Operation Guidelines
Tips for Using Fiber at Higher Optical Power
Our 1x2 and 2x2 Single Mode Coupler offerings are outlined in the graphs below. Click on the colored bars to visit the web presentation for each coupler. Note that the 1020 nm ± 50 nm (orange bars) option is designed for high power applications up to 50 W.