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Camera Noise and Temperature TutorialPlease Wait Camera Noise and TemperatureOverview Sources of NoiseNoise in a camera image is the aggregate spatial and temporal variation in the measured signal, assuming constant, uniform illumination. There are several components of noise:
Total Effective NoiseThe total effective noise per pixel is the quadrature sum of each of the noise sources listed above: (1)
Here, σ_{D} is the dark shot noise, σ_{R} is the read noise (for sample calculations, we will use our 1.4 megapixel cameras, which use the ICX285AL sensor. Typically the read noise is less than 10 e for scientificgrade cameras using the ICX285AL CCD; we will assume a value of 10 e in this tutorial), and σ_{S} is the photon shot noise. If σ_{S}>>σ_{D} and σ_{S}>>σ_{R}, then σ_{eff} is approximately given by the following: (2)
Again, fixed pattern noise is ignored, which is a good approximation for scientificgrade CCDs but may need to be considered for nonscientificgrade sensors.
Click to Enlarge Figure 1: Plot of dark shot noise and read noise as a function of exposure for three sensor temperatures for our 1.4 megapixel cameras. This plot uses logarithmic scales for both axes.The dotted vertical line at 5 s indicates the values calculated as the example in the text. Dark Shot Noise and Sensor TemperatureAs mentioned above, the dark current is a thermal effect and can therefore be reduced by cooling the sensor. Table 1 lists typical dark current values for the Sony ICX285AL CCD sensor used in our 1.4 megapixel cameras. As the dark current results from spontaneously generated electrons, the dark current is measured by simply "counting" these electrons. Since counting electrons obeys Poisson statistics, the noise associated with the dark current I_{D} is proportional to the square root of the number of dark electrons that accumulate during the exposure. For a given exposure, the dark shot noise, σ_{D}, is therefore the square root of the I_{D} value from Table 1 (for a given sensor temperature) multiplied by the exposure time t in seconds: (3)
Since the dark current decreases with decreasing temperature, the associated noise can be decreased by cooling the camera. For example, assuming an exposure of 5 seconds, the dark shot noise levels for the three sensor temperatures listed in the table are (4)
Figure 1, which is a plot of the dark shot noise as a function of exposure for the three temperatures listed in Table 1, illustrates how the dark shot noise increases with increasing exposure. Figure 1 also includes a plot of the upper limit of the read noise. If the photon shot noise is significantly larger than the dark shot noise, then cooling provides a negligible benefit in terms of the noise, and our standard package cameras will work well. Photon Shot NoiseIf S is the number of "signal" electrons generated when a photon flux of N photons/second is incident on each pixel of a sensor with a quantum efficiency QE and an exposure duration of t seconds, then (5)
From S, the photon shot noise, σ_{S}, is given by: (6)
Example Calculations (Using our 1.4 Megapixel Cameras)If we assume that there is a sufficiently high photon flux and quantum efficiency to allow for a signal S of 10,000 e to accumulate in a pixel with an exposure of 5 seconds, then the estimated shot noise, σ_{S}, would be the square root of 10,000, or 100 e. The read noise is 10 e (independent of exposure time). For an exposure of 5 seconds and sensor temperatures of 25, 0, and 25 °C, the dark shot noise is given in equation (4). The effective noise is: (7)
The signaltonoise ratio (SNR) is a useful figure of merit for image quality and is estimated as: (8)
From Equation 7, the SNR values for the three sensor temperatures are: (9)
As the example shows, there is a negligible benefit to using a cooled camera compared to a noncooled camera operating at room temperature, and the photon shot noise is the dominant noise source in this example. In this case our standard package cameras should therefore work quite well. However, if the light levels were lower such that a 100 second exposure was required to achieve 900 e per pixel, then the shot noise would be 30 e. The estimated dark shot noise would be 22.4 e at 25 °C, while at 20 °C the dark shot noise would be 3.2 e. The total effective noise would be (10)
From Equation 8, the SNR values are (11)
In this example, the dark shot noise is a more significant contributor to the total noise for the 25 °C sensor than for the 25 °C sensor. Depending on the application's noise budget, a cooled camera may be beneficial. Figure 2 shows plots of the different noise components, including dark shot noise at three sensor temperatures, as a function of exposure time for three photon fluxes. The plots show that dark shot noise is not a significant contributor to total noise except for low signal (and consequently long exposure) situations. While the photon flux levels used for the calculations are given in the figure, it is not necessary to know the exact photon flux level for your application. Figure 2 suggests a general metric based on exposure time that can be used to determine whether a cooled camera is required if the exposure time can be estimated, and these results are summarized in Table 2. If you find that your dominant source of noise is due to the read noise, then we recommend running the camera at a lower CCD pixel clock rate of 20 MHz, since that will offer a lower read noise. Other ConsiderationsThermoelectric cooling should also be considered for long exposures even where the dark shot noise is not a significant contributor to total noise because cooling also helps to reduce the effects of hot pixels. Hot pixels cause a "star field" pattern that appears under long exposures. Figure 3 shows an example of this star field pattern for images taken using cameras with and without TEC cooling with an exposure of 10 seconds. (a) (b)
 
