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Polaris® Side Optic Retention Mounts for Ø1/2" Optics


  • Designed for Long-Term Stability
  • Matched Actuator and Back Plate Threading Minimize Drift and Backlash
  • Minimal Temperature-Dependent Hysteresis
  • Sapphire Adjuster Seats Prevent Wear Over Time

POLARIS-K05S1

2-Adjuster Mirror Mount

POLARIS-K05

3 Hex Adjusters
(Mirror and Post Not Included)

POLARIS-K05S2

2 Hex Adjusters with Lock Nuts

Related Items


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POLARIS-K05S1 and POLARIS-K05S2 Test Data
Click to Enlarge

Each Polaris mount undergoes extensive thermal testing to ensure high-quality performance. Please see the Test Data tab for additional test results.

Features

  • Machined from Heat-Treated Stainless Steel with Low Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE)
  • Hardened Stainless Steel Ball Contacts with Sapphire Seats for Durability and Smooth Movement
  • Matched Actuators and Back Plate Provide Stability and Smooth Kinematic Adjustment
  • Extensive Testing Guarantees Less than 2 μrad Deviation after 12.5 °C Temperature Cycling (See Test Data Tab for Details)
  • Passivated Stainless Steel Surface Ideal for Vacuum and High-Power Laser Cavity Applications
  • Custom Mount Configurations are Available by Contacting Tech Support

Polaris® Low-Drift Kinematic Mirror Mounts are the ultimate solution for applications requiring stringent long-term alignment stability.

Optic Retention
These Polaris mirror mounts use a flexure spring and setscrew combination to hold the optic. This design provides high holding force and pointing stability while allowing quick and easy installation of the optic.

Polaris optic bores are precision machined to achieve a fit that will provide optimum beam pointing stability over changing environmental conditions such as temperature changes, transportation shock, and vibration. The performance will be diminished if these mounts are used with optics that have an outer diameter tolerance greater than zero or smaller metric mirror sizes (Ø12.5 mm). To order a mount designed for metric optics, please contact Tech Support.

Polaris® Side Optic Retention Mounts Selection Guide
Ø1/2" Optic Mounts
Ø19 mm Optic Mount
Ø25 mm Optic Mount
Ø1" Optic Mounts
Ø50 mm Optic Mount
Ø2" Optic Mounts
Ø3" Optic Mounts

Design
Machined from heat-treated stainless steel, Polaris mounts utilize precision-matched adjusters with ball contacts and sapphire seats to provide smooth kinematic adjustment. As shown on the Test Data tab, these mounts have undergone extensive testing to ensure high-quality performance. The Polaris design addresses all of the common causes of beam misalignment; please refer to the Design Features tab for detailed information.

Post Mounting
The Polaris mirror mounts are equipped with #8 (M4) counterbores for post mounting. Select mounts also include Ø2 mm alignment pin holes around the mounting counterbore, allowing for precision alignments when paired with our posts for Polaris mirror mounts. See the Usage Tips tab for more recommendations about mounting configurations.

Cleanroom and Vacuum Compatibility
All our Polaris mounts on this page are designed to be compatible with cleanroom and vacuum applications. See the Specs tab and the Design Features tab for details.

Item # POLARIS-K05 POLARIS-K05S1 POLARIS-K05S2
Optic Sizea Ø1/2"
Optic Thickness (Min) 0.08" (2 mm)
Number of Adjusters Three Two
Adjuster Drive Low-Profile 5/64" Hex 5/64" Hex
Adjuster Pitch 130 TPI
Actuator Matching Matched Actuator/Body
Measured Point-to-Point 
Mechanical Resolution per Adjuster
(Bidirectional Repeatability)
5 µrad (Typical); 2 µrad (Achievable)
Adjustment per Revolutionb ~11 mrad/rev
Front Plate Translation (Max) 5 mm N/A
Mechanical Angular Range (Nominal) ±5°
Front Plate Separation at Pivot Adjuster 1.5 mm
(Nominal)
1.5 mm
Beam Deviationc After Thermal Cycling <2 μrad
Recommended Optic Mounting Torqued 6 - 10 oz-in for 6 mm Thick Optics
Mountinge Two #8 (M4) Counterbores
Alignment Pin Holes Two at Each Counterboref
Vacuum Compatibilityg 10-9 Torr at 25 °C with Proper Bake Out
10-5 Torr at 25 °C without Bake Out
Grease Vapor Pressure: 10-13 Torr at 20 °C; 10-5 Torr at 200 °C
Epoxy Meets Low Outgassing Standards NASA ASTM E595, Telcordia GR-1221
Operating Temperature Range -30 to 200 °C
  • For best performance, use optics with a diameter tolerance of up to +0/-0.1 mm.
  • When the front plate is parallel to the back plate.
  • After 12.5 °C temperature cycle, the beam returns to within 2 μrad of its original position for a Polaris mounted on a Ø1" post. Please see the Test Data tab for more details.
  • The optimal optic mounting torque can vary by ±1 oz-in due to variations in optic diameter and tolerance buildup.
  • These mounts come with 8-32 and M4 low-profile cap screws for mounting without obstructing the transmissive beam path.
  • Standard DIN 7-m6 ground dowel pins are recommended. The recommended tolerance for the location of the mating dowel pin holes and threaded mounting hole is ±0.003".
  • These mounts are assembled in a clean environment, chemically cleaned using the Carpenter AAA passivation method to remove sulfur, iron, and contaminants from the surface, and double vacuum bagged. The 8-32 and M4 cap screws included with the Polaris mounts are not rated for pressures below 10-5 Torr. Prior to placing any components in a sensitive vacuum system, a thorough pre-baking in a bake-out oven should be performed to remove all moisture and surface volatiles. Contact Tech Support for details.

Polaris Mirror Mounts Test Data

All of the Polaris Low-Drift Kinematic Mirror Mounts have undergone extensive testing to ensure high-quality performance. Thermal Shock testing confirms the exceptional stability of the mounts and demonstrates that they reliably return to their initial position after a transient temperature shift.


Positional Repeatability After Thermal Shock

Purpose: This testing was done to determine how reliably the mount returns the mirror, without hysteresis, to its initial position. These measurements show that the alignment of the optical system is unaffected by the temperature shock.

Procedure: After mounting the Polaris to a Ø1" Post, the mirror and post assembly was secured to a stainless steel optical table in a temperature-controlled environment. The mirror was held using the flexure mechanism; see the Usage Tips tab for additional mounting recommendations. A beam from an independently temperature-stabilized laser diode was reflected by the mirror onto a position sensing detector. The temperature of each mirror mount tested was raised to 37 °C. The elevated temperature was maintained in order to soak the mount at a constant temperature. Then the temperature of the mirror mount was returned to the starting temperature. The results of these tests are shown below.

Results: As can be seen in the plots below, when the Polaris mounts were returned to their initial temperature, the angular position (both pitch and yaw) of the mirrors returned to within 2 µrad of its initial position. The performance of the Polaris was tested further by subjecting the mount to repeated temperature change cycles. After each cycle, the mirror’s position reliably returned to within 2 µrad of its initial position.

For Comparison: To get a 1 µrad change in the mount’s position, the 130 TPI adjuster on the POLARIS-K05 Ø1/2" Polaris mount needs to be rotated by only 0.033° (1/11 000 of a turn). A highly skilled operator might be able to make an adjustment as small as 0.3° (1/1200 of a turn), which corresponds to 6 µrad.

Conclusions: The Polaris Mirror Mounts are high-quality, ultra-stable mounts that will reliably return a mirror to its original position after cycling through a temperature change. As a result, the Polaris mounts are ideal for use in applications that require long-term alignment stability.

POLARIS-K05 Thermal Data
Click to Enlarge
Thermal Repeatability for Ø1/2", 3-Adjuster Polaris Mirror Mount
POLARIS-K05S1 and POLARIS-K05S2 Thermal Data
Click to Enlarge
Thermal Repeatability for Ø1/2", 2-Adjuster Polaris Mirror Mounts
Polaris-K05S2 Thermal Shock Tests
Click to Enlarge

The plot above shows the final angular position of the POLARIS-K05S2 for 39 consecutive thermal shock tests. The change in temperature is the difference between the starting temperature and the temperature at the end of the test and includes factors such as the variation in room temperature.

Click to Enlarge

Details of the Polaris Design

Several common factors typically lead to beam misalignment in an optical setup. These include temperature-induced hysteresis of the mirror's position, crosstalk, drift, and backlash. Polaris mirror mounts are designed specifically to minimize these misalignment factors and thus provide extremely stable performance. Hours of extensive research, multiple design efforts using sophisticated design tools, and months of rigorous testing went into choosing the best components to provide an ideal solution for experiments requiring ultra-stable performance from a kinematic mirror mount.

Thermal Hysteresis
The temperature in most labs is not constant due to factors such as air conditioning, the number of people in the room, and the operating states of equipment. Thus, it is necessary that all mounts used in an alignment-sensitive optical setup be designed to minimize any thermally induced alignment effects. Thermal effects can be minimized by choosing materials with a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), like stainless steel. However, even mounts made from a material with a low CTE do not typically return the mirror to its initial position when the initial temperature is restored. All the critical components of the Polaris mirror mounts are heat treated prior to assembly since this process removes internal stresses that can cause a temperature-dependent hysteresis. As a result, the alignment of the optical system will be restored when the temperature of the mirror mount is returned to the initial temperature.

The method by which the mirror is secured in the mount is another important design factor for the Polaris; these Polaris mounts offer excellent performance without the use of adhesives. Instead, they use a flexure spring that is pressed onto the edge of the mirror using a setscrew. Setscrews, when used by themselves to hold an optic, tend to move as the temperature changes. In contrast, the holding force provided by the stainless steel flat spring is sufficient to keep the mirror locked into place regardless of the ambient temperature.

Crosstalk
Crosstalk is minimized by carefully controlling the dimensional tolerances of the front and back plates of the mount so that the pitch and yaw actuators are orthogonal. In addition, sapphire seats are used at all three contact points. Standard metal-to-metal actuator contact points will wear down over time. The polished sapphire seats of the Polaris mounts, in conjunction with the hardened stainless steel actuator tips, maintain the integrity of the contact surfaces over time.

Drift and Backlash
In order to minimize the positional drift of the mirror mount and backlash, it is necessary to limit the amount of play in the adjuster as well as the amount of lubricant used. When an adjustment is made to the actuator, the lubricant will be squeezed out of some spaces and built up in others. This non-equilibrium distribution of lubricant will slowly relax back into an equilibrium state. However, in doing so, this may cause the position of the front plate of the mount to move. The Polaris mounts use adjusters matched to the body or bushings that exceed all industry standards so very little adjuster lubricant is needed. As a result, alignment of the Polaris mounts is extremely stable even after being adjusted (see the Test Data tab for more information). In addition, these adjusters have a smooth feel that allows the user to make small, repeatable adjustments.

Double Vacuum Bagging for Polaris Mounts
Click to Enlarge

Polaris Mounts are Shipped Inside Two Vacuum Bag Layers

Cleanroom and Vacuum Compatibility
All our Polaris mounts sold on this page are designed to be compatible with cleanroom and vacuum applications. They are chemically cleaned using the Carpenter AAA passivation method to remove sulfur, iron, and contaminants from the surface. After passivation, they are assembled in a clean environment and double vacuum bagged to eliminate contamination when transported into a cleanroom.

All Polaris mounts have sapphire contacts bonded into place using a NASA-approved low outgassing procedure. In addition, DuPont Krytox® LVP High-Vacuum Grease, an ultra-high-vacuum-compatible, low outgassing PTFE grease, is applied to the adjusters. Please note that the 8-32 and M4 cap screws included with the Polaris mounts are not rated for pressures below 10-5 Torr.

Each vacuum-compatible Polaris mount is packaged within two vacuum bag layers after assembly in a clean environment, as seen in the image to the right. These vacuum bags do not contain any desiccant materials and tightly wrap the mount, preventing friction against the mount during shipping. This packing method protects the mount from corrosion, gas or liquid contamination, and particulates during transport. The first vacuum bag should be opened in a clean environment while the second vacuum bag should only be opened just prior to installation. When operating at pressures below 10-5 Torr, we highly recommend using an appropriate bake out procedure prior to installing the mount in order to minimize contamination caused by outgassing.

Polaris 1/2" mounted on 1" post
Click to Enlarge
A POLARIS-K05 mount can be mounted to a surface using a Ø1" Post for Polaris Mirror Mounts and a Polaris Clamping Arm. Using a 1.50" long post, the optical axis is 2.0" above the table surface.
Optic Distortion as a Result of Torque
Click to Enlarge

At zero torque, the sample mirror's flatness was λ/20 over the clear aperture (λ = 633 nm). The shaded region in this plot denotes the recommended optic mounting torque for a 6 mm thick optic in the POLARIS-K1. At higher mounting torque values, the optic distortion increases dramatically.
Back of Polaris Mount Shown on Breadboard
Click to Enlarge

POLARIS-K1 Mounted Directly to Breadboard using 1/4"-20 to 8-32 Adapter

Through thermal changes and vibrations, the Polaris™ kinematic mirror mounts are designed to provide years of use. Below are some usage tips to ensure that the mount provides optimal performance.

Match Materials
Due to its relatively low coefficient of thermal expansion, stainless steel was chosen as the material from which to fabricate the front and back plates of the Polaris mounts. When mounting, we recommend using components fabricated from the same material, such as our Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts and Polaris Clamping Arm.

Use a Wide Post
The Polaris' performance is optimized for use with our Ø1" Posts and our POLARIS-CA1 clamping arm. These posts are made of stainless steel and provide two lines of contact with the mount, which help confine the bottom of the mount during variations in the surrounding temperature, thereby minimizing potential alignment issues.

Optic Mounting
Since an optic is prone to movement within its mounting bore, all optics should be mounted with the Polaris out of the setup to ensure accurate mounting that will minimize misalignment effects. We recommend using a torque wrench when installing an optic in the Polaris mounts. Over torquing the flexure-spring optic retainer can result in dramatic surface distortions (see the graph to the left).

Front Plate’s Position
Ø1/2" Polaris mounts are designed to allow adjustments of up to 10°. To achieve the best performance, it is recommended that the front plate be kept as close to parallel to the back plate as possible. This ensures the highest stability of the adjustments.

Mount as Close to the Table’s Surface as Possible
To minimize the impact of vibrations and temperature changes, it is recommended that your setup has as low of a profile as possible. Using short posts will reduce the Y-axis translation caused by temperature variations and will minimize any movements caused by vibrations. Mount the Polaris directly onto a flat surface such as a breadboard using a 1/4"-20 to 8-32 thread adapter (AE8E25E) or M6 x 1.0 to M4 x 0.7 adapter (AE4M6M). For direct mounting, the POLARIS-K1 must have the bottom two knobs removed, as in the photo to the right. By doing so, the instability introduced by a post will be eliminated.

Polish and Clean the Points of Contact
We highly recommend that the points of contact between the mount and the post, as well as the post and the table, are clean and free of scratches or defects. For best results, we recommend using a polishing stone to clean the table’s surface and a LFG1P polishing pad for the top and bottom of the post as well as the bottom of the mount.

Not Recommended
We do not recommend taking the adjusters out of the back plate, as it can contaminate the threading. This can reduce the fine adjustment performance significantly. Also, do not pull the front plate away as it might stretch the springs beyond their operating range or crack the sapphire seats. Finally, do not over tighten the retaining screws that secure the flat spring that holds the optic in place; only slight force is required to secure the optic in place.


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Polaris Mount Optic Retention Methods (Click Image to Enlarge)
Side Lock SM Threaded Low Distortion Glue In
Polaris Mount Adjuster Types (Click Image for Details)
Side Hole Hex Adjuster Knobs Adjuster
Lock Nuts
Piezo Adjusters

Thorlabs offers several different general varieties of Polaris mounts, including kinematic side optic retention, SM-threaded, low optic distortion, piezo-actuated, and glue-in optic mounts, as well as a fixed monolithic mirror mount and fixed optic mounts. Click to expand the tables below and see our complete line of Polaris mounts, listed by optic bore size, and then arranged by optic retention method and adjuster type. We also offer a line of accessories that have been specifically designed for use with our Polaris mounts; these are listed in the table immediately below.

If your application requires a mirror mount design that is not available below, please contact Tech Support.

Polaris Mounts for Ø1/2" Optics 

Polaris Mounts for Ø19 mm (3/4") Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø25 mm Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø1" Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø50 mm Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø2" Optics

Polaris Mounts for Ø3" Optics

Polaris Kinematic Platform Mount

Polaris® Ø1/2" Kinematic Mirror Mount, 3 Adjusters

  • 3-Adjuster Hex-Driven Design
  • Designed for use with Ø1/2" Optics
  • 130 TPI Matched Actuator/Body Pairs
  • ±5° Mechanical Angular Range
  • ~11 mrad/rev Resolution
  • Less than 2 µrad Deviation after Temperature Cycling (See the Test Data Tab for Details)
  • 1" Wide Compact Footprint
  • Flexure Spring and Setscrew Retain Optic with Low Distortion

This Ø1/2" 3-Adjuster Standard Polaris Kinematic Mirror Mount is designed to provide easy high-resolution adjustment and long-term alignment stability. The Polaris integrated matched adjuster/body design results in greater durability and thermal performance compared to non-Polaris mirror mounts. Kinematic adjustment is provided by three 130 TPI adjusters. These adjusters have a 5/64" (2 mm) hex and may be adjusted with our HKTS-5/64 Hex Key Thumbscrew (sold below) or any other 5/64" (2 mm) hex wrench. The three-adjuster design provides tip and tilt plus Z-axis (optical axis) adjustment. A two-adjuster version is also available below.

Post mounting is provided by two #8 (M4) counterbores. For custom mounting configurations, Ø2 mm alignment pin holes are located on both sides of each counterbore for setting a precise location and mounting angle. Standard DIN 7-m6 ground dowel pins are recommended (see the red documents icon below for details). We recommend using this mount with a stainless steel post that also has Ø2 mm alignment pin holes, such as our Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts. Due to the shallow design of the counterbores, low-profile 8-32 and M4 cap screws are included for mounting without obstructing the transmissive beam path. The 8-32 cap screw accepts a 5/64" (2 mm) hex wrench, while the M4 cap screw accepts a 2.5 mm hex wrench.

This mount is not compatible with adjuster lock nuts.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
POLARIS-K05 Support Documentation
POLARIS-K05Polaris® Ø1/2" Mirror Mount, 3 Low-Profile Hex Adjusters
$141.78
Today

Polaris® Ø1/2" Kinematic Mirror Mounts, 2 Adjusters

Polaris-K05S2
Click for Details

POLARIS-K05S2 Mount with Mirror Installed
  • 2-Adjuster Hex-Driven Design
  • Designed for use with Ø1/2" Optics
  • 130 TPI Matched Actuator/Body Pairs
  • Low-Profile or Standard-Profile Adjusters
  • ±5° Mechanical Angular Range
  • ~11 mrad/rev Resolution
  • Less than 2 µrad Deviation after Temperature Cycling (See the Test Data Tab for Details)
  • 1" Wide Compact Footprint
  • Flexure Spring and Setscrew Retain Optic with Low Distortion

These 2-adjuster Ø1/2" Standard Polaris Kinematic Mirror Mounts are similar to the standard hex-driven 3-adjuster version sold above but feature a hardened steel ball in place of the third adjuster. The 2-adjuster design improves mount stability by limiting the available degrees of freedom for movement. An integrated matched adjuster/body design results in greater durability and thermal performance compared to non-Polaris mirror mounts. 

The POLARIS-K05S2 mount has standard-profile hex adjusters and includes two POLARIS-LN05 adjuster lock nuts. For fitting into tight spaces, the POLARIS-K05S1 mount is equipped with low-profile hex adjusters that are 0.15" (3.8 mm) shorter than the adjusters on the POLARIS-K05S2; due to the shorter adjusters, the POLARIS-K05S1 is not compatible with lock nuts. These adjusters have a 5/64" (2 mm) hex and may be adjusted with our HKTS-5/64 Hex Key Thumbscrew (sold below) or any other 5/64" (2 mm) hex wrench.

Post mounting is provided by two #8 (M4) counterbores. For custom mounting configurations, Ø2 mm alignment pin holes are located on both sides of each counterbore for setting a precise location and mounting angle. Standard DIN 7-m6 ground dowel pins are recommended (see the red documents icon below for details). We recommend using this mount with a stainless steel post that also has Ø2 mm alignment pin holes, such as our Ø1" Posts for Polaris Mirror Mounts. Due to the shallow design of the counterbores, low-profile 8-32 and M4 cap screws are included for mounting without obstructing the transmissive beam path. The 8-32 cap screw accepts a 5/64" (2 mm) hex wrench, while the M4 cap screw accepts a 2.5 mm hex wrench.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
POLARIS-K05S1 Support Documentation
POLARIS-K05S1Polaris® Ø1/2" Mirror Mount, 2 Low-Profile Hex Adjusters
$131.58
Today
POLARIS-K05S2 Support Documentation
POLARIS-K05S2Polaris® Ø1/2" Mirror Mount, 2 Hex Adjusters with Lock Nuts
$146.88
Today

5/64" Hex Key Adjusters

POLARIS-K12AH with HKTS-5/64 Adjuster
Click for Details

POLARIS-K1-2AH with HKTS-5/64 Adjuster
  • For Convenient Adjustment of 5/64" and 2 mm Hex-Driven Actuators
  • Red Anodized Adjustment Knob with Engraved Hex Size
  • Replaceable Hex Tip
  • Sold in Packages of 4

These 5/64" Hex Key Adjuster Thumbscrews allow for quick adjustment of many 5/64" and 2 mm hex-driven actuators (or standard actuators with the knobs removed). These temporary knobs can be left in the screw's hex socket between adjustments for convenience (see photo to the right). An 8-32 setscrew (5/64" hex) secures the replaceable hex bit, which can be reversed if the tip is stripped. Contact Tech Support to order replacement hex key bits.

We offer hex key thumbscrews in sizes from 0.050" to 3/16" and 2 mm to 5 mm.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
HKTS-5/64 Support Documentation
HKTS-5/64Customer Inspired! 5/64" (2 mm) Hex Key Thumbscrew, 4 Pack
$23.69
Today

3/16"-130 Adjuster Lock Nuts for Polaris Mounts

To install a lock nut without cross threading, gently place the lock nut against the end of the adjuster. "Unscrew" the nut until the threads of the nut and the adjuster align before threading the nut onto the adjuster. This animation shows the installation of a POLARIS-LN1 lock nut on a POLARIS-K1F1 low distortion mount.


Click to Enlarge

POLARIS-LN05 Lock Nuts on a POLARIS-K19S4 Mount
  • Lock Nuts for Long-Term Adjuster Stability
  • Compatible with Select Polaris Mounts

These lock nuts are designed for use with Polaris mounts with 3/16"-130 adjusters. Designed for long-term adjuster stability or applications that are exposed to shock and vibration, these lock nuts are pre-greased with the same ultra-high-vacuum-compatible, low-outgassing PTFE grease as the Polaris mounts and have been tested for adjuster fit.

To secure the lock nut on an adjuster, lightly tighten to a torque of approximately 4 to 8 oz-in (0.03 to 0.06 N·m). The beam can be held on target with the adjuster thumbscrew or hex key while lightly tightening the lock nut by hand or with a thin-head wrench or cone wrench; POLARIS-LN05 lock nuts require a 6 mm hex tool for tightening. To avoid cross threading the lock nut, place it against the adjuster and "unscrew" the lock nut until you feel a slight drop; then thread the lock nut onto the adjuster.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
POLARIS-LN05 Support Documentation
POLARIS-LN053/16"-130 Lock Nut, 6 mm Hex, Stainless Steel
$12.30
Today
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