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UV/VIS Bandpass & Laser Line Filters: 340 - 694.3 nm Center Wavelength
Transmission Direction Indicator
Please see the Tutorial tab for more information about the structure of the filter and the transmission direction arrow.
The bandpass and laser line filters shown on this page feature center wavelengths shorter than 700 nm. Transmission curves for individual filters are available by viewing the Spec sheet for an individual filter. Each filter is mounted in an unthreaded black anodized aluminum ring with an outer diameter of Ø1/2" or Ø1" and a maximum edge thickness of 6.3 mm. Please note that Ø1/2" filter options are highlighted in green in the tables below.
Thorlabs' bandpass filters provide one of the simplest ways to transmit a well-defined wavelength band of light, while rejecting other unwanted radiation. Their design is essentially that of a thin film Fabry-Perot Interferometer formed by vacuum deposition techniques and consists of two reflecting stacks, separated by an even-order spacer layer. These reflecting stacks are constructed from alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, which can have a reflectance in excess of 99.99%. By varying the thickness of the spacer layer and/or the number of reflecting layers, the central wavelength and bandwidth of the filter can be altered.
This type of filter displays very high transmission in the bandpass region, but the spectral range of blocked light on either side of the bandpass region is narrow. To compensate for this, an additional blocking component is added, which is either an all dielectric or a metal-dielectric depending on the requirements of the filter. Although this additional blocking component will eliminate any unwanted out-of-band radiation, it also reduces the filter's overall transmission throughput. For applications with demanding wavefront requirements, such as imaging, please consider our premium bandpass filters.
Each filter is housed in a black anodized aluminum ring that is labeled with an arrow indicating the design transmission direction. The ring makes handling easier and enhances the blocking OD by limiting scattering. These filters can be mounted in our extensive line of filter mounts and wheels. As the mounts are not threaded, retaining rings will be required to mount the filters in one of our internally-threaded lens tubes or filter mounts, as shown above. We do not recommend removing the filter from its mount, as the filter consists of several layers of glass that are held together with epoxy and the mounting ring. These glass layers are necessary to protect the dielectric coating from the atmosphere; exposure would significantly reduce the filter's transmission efficiency over time.
Please note that due to the gradual breakdown of the dielectric coatings, our bandpass filters have a typical lifetime of two years. Older filters will experience a decrease in overall transmission in the passband.
Click to Enlarge
The number of layers shown in this schematic is not indicative of the number of layers in an actual bandpass filter. Also the drawing is not to scale.
Bandpass Filter Structure
A bandpass filter is created by depositing layers of material on the surface of the substrate. Typically, there are several dielectric stacks separated by spacer layers. The dielectric stack is composed of a large number of alternating layers of low-index and high-index dielectric material. The thickness of each layer in the dielectric stack is λ/4, where λ is the central wavelength of the bandpass filter (i.e. the wavelength with the highest transmittance through the filter). The spacer layers are placed in between the dielectric stacks and have a thickness of (nλ)/2, where n is an integer. The spacer layers can be formed from colored glass, epoxy, dyes, metallic, or dielectric layers. A Fabry-Perot cavity is formed by each spacer layer sandwiched between dielectric stacks. The filter is mounted in an engraved metal ring for protection and ease of handling.
Filter Operation Overview
The constructive interference conditions of a Fabry-Perot cavity allow light at the central wavelength, and a small band of wavelengths to either side, to be transmitted efficiently, while destructive interference prevents the light outside the passband from being transmitted. However, the band of blocked wavelengths on either side of the central wavelength is small. In order increase the blocking range of the filter, materials with broad blocking ranges are used for or coated onto the spacer layers and the substrate. Although these materials effectively block out of band transmission of incident radiation they also decrease the transmission through the filter in the passband.
FB800-10 and FB800-40 filters were used to make the measurement that resulted in the plot above.
An engraved arrow on the edge of the filter is used to indicate the recommended direction for the transmission of light through the filter. Although the filter will function with either side facing the source, it is better to place the coated side toward the source. This will minimize any thermal effects or possible thermal damage that blocking intense out-of-band radiation might cause due to the absorption of the out-of-band radiation by the substrate or colored glass filter layers. The plot to the right was made by illuminating the filter with a low intensity broadband light and measuring the transmission as a function of wavelength. The plot shows that the transmission direction through the filter has very little effect on the intensity and the spectrum of the light transmitted through the filter. The minimal variation between the forward and backward traces is most likely due to a small shift in the incident angle of the light on the filter introduced when the filter was removed, flipped over, and replaced in the jig.
The filter is intended to be used with collimated light normally incident on the surface of the filter. For uncollimated light or light striking the surface and an angle not normally incident to the surface the central wavelength (wavelength corresponding to peak transmission) will shift toward lower wavelengths and the shape of the transmission region (passband) will change. Varying the angle of incidence by a small amount can be used to effectively tune the passband over a narrow range. Large changes in the incident angle will cause larger shifts in the central wavelength but will also significantly distort the shape of the passband and, more importantly, cause a significant decrease in the transmittance of the passband.
The central wavelength of the bandpass filter can be tuned slightly (~1 nm over the operating range of the filter) by changing the temperature of the filter. This is primarily due to the slight thermal expansion or contraction of the layers.
The Bandpass Filter Kits contain ten of our most popular Ø1" mounted filters. The filter housings are labeled with the center wavelength, the Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of the bandpass region, lot number, and an arrow denoting the transmission direction. The filters come in a foam-lined storage box to help keep the optics organized and protected from physical damage. The table below contains a list of filters (and specs) included in each of the kits.