Our complete selection of laser diodes is available on the LD Selection Guide tab above.
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Wavelength Stabilized by a Fiber Bragg Grating
976 nm Center Wavelength with Output Powers from 300 to 900 mW
1425 to 1456 nm Center Wavelengths with 500 mW Output Power
Integrated Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC) and Thermistor
Spectral Bandwidth <2 nm
14-Pin, Hermetically Sealed Butterfly Package
Pigtailed Single Mode or Polarization-Maintaining Optical Fiber with FC/APC Connector (2.0 mm Narrow Key)
Telcordia GR-468 CORE Qualified
Core Pumping Erbium-Doped Fiber Devices:
Low-Noise CW Lasers
Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA)
Optical Tweezer Systems
Thorlabs' Fiber-Bragg-Grating- (FBG) Stabilized Lasers are compact laser diodes designed for use as pump lasers. The butterfly packages contain an integrated thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and thermistor. The region of the fiber marked by a pair of black bands contains a grating etched into the fiber, which acts as a Bragg reflector to provide feedback to the laser. The FBG-stabilized design produces an output that is spectrally broadened by satellite modes. A FBG-stabilized laser is not a single longitudinal mode laser; while it is stabilized in terms of frequency, the gain curve will contain many different modes. Additionally, these Bragg gratings are relatively insensitive to temperature (<0.02 nm/°C). It should be noted that for the SM-pigtailed laser (item # BL976-SAG300), stress-induced birefingence on the fiber may change the output spectrum of the laser diode. Due to the properties of the fiber, the PM-pigtailed lasers will not be affected.
The 976 nm FBG lasers produce a stable output of ≥300 mW with a single mode fiber pigtail or between 500 and 900 mW with a polarization-maintaining fiber pigtail. With a spectral bandwidth of <1 nm, they are well suited for core pumping of Erbium-doped fibers, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, mode-locked oscillators, and CW lasers.
The FBG lasers with wavelengths between 1425 and 1456 nm produce a stable output of 500 mW with a polarization-maintaining fiber pigtail. These laser diodes are designed for Raman amplification and can be used for other applications that require a stabilized, high-power laser source.
Specifications for each item can be found in the tables below and by clicking on the blue icons () below. These specifications are typical values; the performance of a particular unit varies slightly between devices. Each FBG-stabilized laser diode is serialized and shipped with individual test data; click here for a sample data sheet.
These FBG laser diodes are compatible with Thorlabs' line of laser diode drivers and temperature controllers in combination with a butterfly mount. To achieve the narrowest possible linewidth, we recommend using a driver with low drive current noise, such as our LDC series of drivers. When securing a laser diode to a mount or heatsink, be sure not to exceed the 150 mN·m torque limit on the screws holding the butterfly package.
We recommend cleaning the fiber connector before each use in case any dust or other contaminants have been deposited on the surface. The laser intensity at the center of the fiber tip can be very high and may burn the tip of the fiber if contaminants are present. While the connector is cleaned and capped before shipping, we cannot guarantee that it will remain free of contamination after it is removed from the package. We also recommend that the laser is turned off when connecting or disconnecting the device from other fibers.
Our FBG-Stabilized Lasers are available for purchase in volume orders. Additionally, custom configurations such as unterminated fiber leads or different FBG center wavelengths are available. Please contact Tech Support for more information and quotation.
For warranty information, please refer to the LD Operation tab.
Safe practices and proper usage of safety equipment should be taken into consideration when operating lasers. The eye is susceptible to injury, even from very low levels of laser light. Thorlabs offers a range of laser safety accessories that can be used to reduce the risk of accidents or injuries. Laser emission in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges has the greatest potential for retinal injury, as the cornea and lens are transparent to those wavelengths, and the lens can focus the laser energy onto the retina.
Safe Practices and Light Safety Accessories
Thorlabs recommends the use of safety eyewear whenever working with laser beams with non-negligible powers (i.e., > Class 1) since metallic tools such as screwdrivers can accidentally redirect a beam.
Laser goggles designed for specific wavelengths should be clearly available near laser setups to protect the wearer from unintentional laser reflections.
Goggles are marked with the wavelength range over which protection is afforded and the minimum optical density within that range.
Post appropriate warning signs or labels near laser setups or rooms.
Use a laser sign with a lightbox if operating Class 3R or 4 lasers (i.e., lasers requiring the use of a safety interlock).
Do not use Laser Viewing Cards in place of a proper Beam Trap.
Lasers are categorized into different classes according to their ability to cause eye and other damage. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a global organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic, and related technologies. The IEC document 60825-1 outlines the safety of laser products. A description of each class of laser is given below:
This class of laser is safe under all conditions of normal use, including use with optical instruments for intrabeam viewing. Lasers in this class do not emit radiation at levels that may cause injury during normal operation, and therefore the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) cannot be exceeded. Class 1 lasers can also include enclosed, high-power lasers where exposure to the radiation is not possible without opening or shutting down the laser.
Class 1M lasers are safe except when used in conjunction with optical components such as telescopes and microscopes. Lasers belonging to this class emit large-diameter or divergent beams, and the MPE cannot normally be exceeded unless focusing or imaging optics are used to narrow the beam. However, if the beam is refocused, the hazard may be increased and the class may be changed accordingly.
Class 2 lasers, which are limited to 1 mW of visible continuous-wave radiation, are safe because the blink reflex will limit the exposure in the eye to 0.25 seconds. This category only applies to visible radiation (400 - 700 nm).
Because of the blink reflex, this class of laser is classified as safe as long as the beam is not viewed through optical instruments. This laser class also applies to larger-diameter or diverging laser beams.
Lasers in this class are considered safe as long as they are handled with restricted beam viewing. The MPE can be exceeded with this class of laser, however, this presents a low risk level to injury. Visible, continuous-wave lasers are limited to 5 mW of output power in this class.
Class 3B lasers are hazardous to the eye if exposed directly. However, diffuse reflections are not harmful. Safe handling of devices in this class includes wearing protective eyewear where direct viewing of the laser beam may occur. In addition, laser safety signs lightboxes should be used with lasers that require a safety interlock so that the laser cannot be used without the safety light turning on. Class-3B lasers must be equipped with a key switch and a safety interlock.
This class of laser may cause damage to the skin, and also to the eye, even from the viewing of diffuse reflections. These hazards may also apply to indirect or non-specular reflections of the beam, even from apparently matte surfaces. Great care must be taken when handling these lasers. They also represent a fire risk, because they may ignite combustible material. Class 4 lasers must be equipped with a key switch and a safety interlock.
All class 2 lasers (and higher) must display, in addition to the corresponding sign above, this triangular warning sign
Laser Diode and Laser Diode Pigtail Warranty
When operated within their specifications, laser diodes have extremely long lifetimes. Most failures occur from mishandling or operating the lasers beyond their maximum ratings. Laser Diodes are among the most static-sensitive devices currently made. Proper ESD Protection should be worn whenever handling a laser diode. Due to their extreme electrostatic sensitivity, laser diodes cannot be returned after their sealed package has been opened. Laser diodes in their original sealed package can be returned for a full refund or credit.
Handling and Storage Precautions
Due to their extreme susceptibility to damage from electrostatic discharge (ESD), care should be taken whenever handling and operating laser diodes:
Laser Diode Storage: When not in use, short the leads of the laser together to protect against ESD damage.
Operating and Safety Precautions
Use an Appropriate Driver: Laser diodes require precise control of operating current and voltage to avoid overdriving the laser diode. In addition, the laser driver should provide protection against power supply transients. Select a laser driver appropriate for your application. Do not use a voltage supply with a current limiting resistor since it does not provide sufficient regulation to protect the laser.
Thermal Management: Laser diode lifetime is inversely proportional to operating temperature. We strongly recommend the use of active temperature control in order to prevent damage and/or reduced lifetime. For assistance in picking a suitable temperature controller for your application, please contact Tech Support. In addition, always mount the laser in a suitable heat sink to remove excess heat from the laser package.
Power Meters: When setting up and calibrating a laser diode with its driver, use a NIST-traceable power meter to precisely measure the laser output. It is usually safest to measure the laser output directly before placing the laser in an optical system. If this is not possible, be sure to take all optical losses (transmissive, aperture stopping, etc.) into consideration when determining the total output of the laser.
Reflections: Flat surfaces in the optical system in front of a laser diode can cause some of the laser energy to reflect back onto the laser’s monitor photodiode giving an erroneously high photodiode current. If optical components are moved within the system and energy is no longer reflected onto the monitor photodiode, a constant power feedback loop will sense the drop in photodiode current and try to compensate by increasing the laser drive current and possibly overdriving the laser. Back reflections can also cause other malfunctions or damage to laser diodes. To avoid this, be sure that all surfaces are angled 5-10°, and when necessary, use optical isolators to attenuate direct feedback into the laser.
Voltage and Current Overdrive: Be careful not to exceed the maximum voltage and drive current listed on the specification sheet with each laser diode, even momentarily. Also, reverse voltages as little as 3 V can damage a laser diode.
ESD Sensitive Device: Currently operating lasers are susceptible to ESD damage. This is particularly aggravated by using long interface cables between the laser diode and its driver due to the inductance that the cable presents. Avoid exposing the laser or its mounting apparatus to ESDs at all times.
ON/OFF and Power Supply Coupled Transients: Due to their fast response times, laser diodes can be easily damaged by transients less than 1 µs. High current devices such as soldering irons, vacuum pumps, and fluorescent lamps can cause large momentary transients. Thus, always use surge-protected outlets.
If you have any questions regarding laser diodes, please call your local Thorlabs Technical Support office for assistance.
The rows shaded green below denote single-frequency lasers.