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High-Speed Fiber-Coupled Detectors
AC Power Adapter as
(Power Supply Not Shown to Scale)
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PDA200C Benchtop Photodiode Amplifier Connected to a DET02AFC Photodetector Using an SMA-to-BNC Cable
Thorlabs offers a variety of fiber-coupled, high-speed, high-bandwidth photodetectors designed to connect to a single mode or multimode fiber with an FC/PC-terminated input. Together, these detectors are sensitive from the visible to the near infrared (400 - 1700 nm); please see the "Selection Guide" table to the right for the exact spectral range covered by each detector. All detectors shown here feature GHz signal bandwidths and the same ease of use as the rest of our popular DET series. These detectors are designed to perform in test or measurement applications, including research in the fields of data communications, analog microwave, and general high-speed photonics. For comparable detection of free-space radiation, Thorlabs offers high-speed free-space detectors. We also carry a variety of internally biased photodiodes that feature the same ease of use as our fiber-coupled photodetectors but operate at slower speeds. Our biased photodetectors are compatible with our benchtop photodiode amplifier and PMT transimpedance amplifier.
These fiber-coupled detectors are reverse biased and contain an internal bias battery, producing a linear response to the incident input light. To maintain the high signal bandwidth, the signal is output through an SMA connector. Thorlabs offers a complete range of electrical adapters and cables, including SMA cables and SMA-to-BNC adapters, for monitoring the output signal with an oscilloscope or other measurement electronics.
Our Si-based fiber-coupled detectors are designed for use in the 400 - 1100 nm wavelength range and provide a bandwidth of 1 GHz (Item # DET02AFC) or 2 GHz (Item # DET025AFC). For applications extending into the near infrared, consider our InGaAs-based fiber-coupled detectors, which provide detection in the 800 - 1700 nm wavelength range and provide a bandwidth of 1.2 GHz (Item # DET01CFC) or 5 GHz (Item # DET08CFC). When looking at high-speed signals, Thorlabs recommends using a 50 Ω load resistor. For lower bandwidth applications, our variable terminator or fixed stub-style terminators quickly adjusts the measured voltage.
All of these detectors include a replaceable A23 12 VDC Bias battery, providing an extremely low-noise power source. This battery can be replaced by the DET1B power adapter bundle (sold below), which is ideal for applications where a small increase in the signal noise due to noise in the line voltage is permissible or the finite lifetime of a battery is not acceptable. Please note that due to slight physical variations of the positive terminal from manufacturer to manufacturer, Thorlabs recommends using only an Energizer battery in our DET series photodetectors.
Note: The data for all graphs above were obtained for their respective detectors with the AR-Coated windows included in the measurement set up.
0 - 10 V w/ 50 Ω
When using a battery-operated photodetector it is important to understand the battery’s lifetime and how this affects the operation of the detector. As a current output device, the output current of the photodetector is directly proportional to the light incident on the detector. Most users will convert this current to a voltage by using a load-terminating resistor. The resistance value is approximately equal to the circuit gain. For very high speed detectors, such as those sold on this page, it is very important to use a 50 Ω terminating resistor to match the impedance of standard coax cables to reduce cable reflections and improve overall signal performance and integrity. Most high bandwidth scopes come equipped with this termination.
The battery usage lifetime directly correlates to the current used by the detector. Most battery manufacturers provide a battery lifetime in terms of mA hr. For example, the battery supplied with the DET08CFC detectors is rated for 40 mA hrs. This means that it will reliably operate for 40 hr at a current draw of 1.0 mA. This battery will be used in the following example on how to determine battery lifetime based on usage.
For this example we have a 780 nm light source with an average 1 mW power is applied to an DET08CFC. The responsivity of a biased photodetector based on the response curve at this wavelength is 0.5 A/W. The photocurrent can be calculated as:
Given the battery has a rated lifetime of 40 mA hr, the battery will last:
or 3.3 days of continuous use. By reducing the average incident power of the light to 10 µW, the same battery would last for about 333 days when used continuously. When using the recommended 50 Ω terminating load, the 0.5 mA photocurrent will be converted into a voltage of:
If the incident power level is reduced to 10 µW, the output voltage becomes 0.25 mV. For some measurement devices this signal level may be too low and a compromise between battery life and measurement accuracy will need to be made.
When using a battery-powered, biased photodetector, it is desirable to use as low a light intensity as is possible, keeping in mind the minimum voltage levels required. It is also important to remember that a battery will not immediately cease producing a current as it nears the end of its lifetime. Instead, the voltage of the battery will drop, and the electric potential being applied to the photodiode will decrease. This in turn will increase the response time of the detector and lower its bandwidth. As a result, it is important to make sure the battery has sufficient voltage (as given in the Troubleshooting chapter of the detector's manual) for the detector to operate within its specified parameters. The voltage can be checked with a multimeter.
Another suggestion to increase the battery lifetime is to remove, or power down the light source illuminating the sensor. Without the light source, the photodetector will continue to draw current proportional to the photodetector’s dark current, but this current will be significantly smaller. For example, the DET08CFC has a dark current less than 1.5 nA.
For applications where a DET series photodetector is being continuously illuminated with a relatively high-power light source or if having to change the battery is not acceptable, we offer the DET1B adapter and power supply. The drawback to this option is the noise in the line voltage will add to the noise in the output signal and could cause more measurement uncertainty.
Theory of Operation
A junction photodiode is an intrinsic device that behaves similarly to an ordinary signal diode, but it generates a photocurrent when light is absorbed in the depleted region of the junction semiconductor. A photodiode is a fast, highly linear device that exhibits high quantum efficiency based upon the application and may be used in a variety of different applications.
It is necessary to be able to correctly determine the level of the output current to expect and the responsivity based upon the incident light. Depicted in Figure 1 is a junction photodiode model with basic discrete components to help visualize the main characteristics and gain a better understanding of the operation of Thorlabs' photodiodes.
Modes of Operation (Photoconductive vs. Photovoltaic)
The dark current present is also affected by the photodiode material and the size of the active area. Silicon devices generally produce low dark current compared to germanium devices which have high dark currents. The table below lists several photodiode materials and their relative dark currents, speeds, sensitivity, and costs.
Bandwidth and Response
Noise Equivalent Power
Here, S/N is the Signal to Noise Ratio, Δf is the Noise Bandwidth, and Incident Energy has units of W/cm2. For more information on NEP, please see Thorlabs' Noise Equivalent Power White Paper.
Depending on the type of the photodiode, load resistance can affect the response speed. For maximum bandwidth, we recommend using a 50 Ω coaxial cable with a 50 Ω terminating resistor at the opposite end of the cable. This will minimize ringing by matching the cable with its characteristic impedance. If bandwidth is not important, you may increase the amount of voltage for a given light level by increasing RLOAD. In an unmatched termination, the length of the coaxial cable can have a profound impact on the response, so it is recommended to keep the cable as short as possible.
Common Operating Circuits
The DET series detectors are modeled with the circuit depicted above. The detector is reverse biased to produce a linear response to the applied input light. The amount of photocurrent generated is based upon the incident light and wavelength and can be viewed on an oscilloscope by attaching a load resistance on the output. The function of the RC filter is to filter any high-frequency noise from the input supply that may contribute to a noisy output.
One can also use a photodetector with an amplifier for the purpose of achieving high gain. The user can choose whether to operate in Photovoltaic of Photoconductive modes. There are a few benefits of choosing this active circuit:
where GBP is the amplifier gain bandwidth product and CD is the sum of the junction capacitance and amplifier capacitance.
Effects of Chopping Frequency
The photoconductor signal will remain constant up to the time constant response limit. Many detectors, including PbS, PbSe, HgCdTe (MCT), and InAsSb, have a typical 1/f noise spectrum (i.e., the noise decreases as chopping frequency increases), which has a profound impact on the time constant at lower frequencies.
The detector will exhibit lower responsivity at lower chopping frequencies. Frequency response and detectivity are maximized for
The following table lists Thorlabs' selection of photodiodes and photoconductive detectors. Item numbers in the same row contain the same detector element.
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SMA Output on the DET025AFC Detector
The DET02AFC(/M) and DET025AFC(/M) high-speed, fiber-coupled detectors are designed for use in the 400 - 1100 nm spectral range. They use a Si detector element based on our FDS02 photodiode and have a 1 GHz and 2 GHz bandwidth, respectively. An 8-32 tapped mounting hole (M4 for the metric version) allows easy mounting to our Ø1/2" posts.
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SMA Output on the DET08CFC Detector
The DET01CFC(/M) is designed for use in the 800 - 1700 nm spectral range. It uses an InGaAs detector element based on our FGA01FC photodiode and features a 1.2 GHz bandwidth. It has an FC/PC input connector, and our testing shows that it can also be used with FC/APC patch cables with no measurable differences in performance. An 8-32 tapped mounting hole (M4 for the metric version) allows easy mounting to our series of Ø1/2" posts.
The DET08CFC(/M) is designed for use in the 800 - 1700 nm spectral range. It uses an InGaAs detector element and features a 5 GHz bandwidth. It has an FC/PC input connector, and our testing shows that it can also be used with FC/APC patch cables with no measurable differences in performance. An 8-32 tapped mounting hole (M4 for the metric version) allows easy mounting to our Ø1/2" posts.
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Exploded View of SBP12 Battery Pack
A23 and T505 Alkaline Batteries
SBP12 Battery Pack
As shown by the photo to the right, the SBP12 consists of an A23 battery in a newly designed housing. You may already own this housing if you purchased your SV2-FC or SIR5-FC in or after October 2013, or if you have already purchased an SBP12. If you do own this housing, then it is necessary to purchase only the A23 battery.
Customers who own an SV2-FC or SIR5-FC detector purchased before October 2013 will need to bend two pins to ensure that the SBP12 battery pack makes electrical contact. The procedure is illustrated in the spec sheet of the battery, which can be downloaded here.
Animation of Installation Procedure
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Shown is the DET1B adapter bundle being used to replace a DET100A battery. The DET1B includes the DET1A power adapter and the LDS9 power supply.
The DET1A is a power adapter for our DET series detectors. The DET1A features a 2.5 mm mono jack and will directly replace the A23 battery, cap, and spring to allow the detector to run directly from our LDS9 power supply (sold separately).
The LDS9 is a 9 V regulated power supply with a ripple voltage of less than 10 mV RMS. Its features include a current limit for short circuit and overload protection, an on/off switch with an LED indicator, and a switchable AC input voltage (115 or 230 VAC).
The DET1B power supply bundle includes both the DET1A and LDS9. It can be used to replace the battery in our DET series detectors. To use the DET1B, simply replace the battery cap and battery with the included DET1A adapter, and then insert the 2.5 mm mono plug from the LDS9 power supply into the adapter. This procedure is depicted in the animation to the right.
Please also note that the LDS9 power supply offers a lower bias voltage than the 12 V provided by the standard A23 battery. To minimize noise, our photodetectors contain voltage regulators that expect a higher input voltage than the bias that is eventually applied to the detector. For best performance, we therefore recommend this power supply only when it can supply a higher bias than the detector requires. Using a lower voltage will reduce the detector's bandwidth and rise time.