Thorlabs Inc.
Visit the Resolution Test Targets page for pricing and availability information

Resolution Test Targets

  • Test Targets Identify Resolution of an Imaging System
  • Positive and Negative Patterns Available
  • Combined Resolution and Distortion Targets Available

R1DS1N

Ø1" 1951 USAF Target

R1L3S6PR

Reflective Variable Line Grating Target

R1L1S1P

Combined Resolution
and Distortion Target

R3L3S1N

Negative 1951 USAF Target

R1L1S2P

Sector Star Target

R2L2S1P1

Positive, High-Frequency
NBS 1963A Target

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OVERVIEW

Type Photolithographic Birefringent
Design Chrome-on-Glass Birefringent Pattern
Substrate Clear Soda Lime Glassa N-BK7 Glass
Chrome Thickness 0.120 µm N/A
Substrate Thickness 0.06" (1.5 mm) 0.16" (4.0 mm)
Line Spacing Toleranceb ±1 µm N/A
Line Width Toleranceb ±0.5 µm N/A
  • The positive targets consist of chrome patterns etched on soda lime glass. The negative targets use the same chrome coating to cover the substrates, leaving the patterns clear.
  • This tolerance is valid for the mask used to create these targets and may differ minimally for the targets themselves.
Test Target
Click to Enlarge

An R2L2S1N NBS 1963A Resolution Target Mounted in an XYF1 Test Target Positioner

Features

  • Positive and Negative 1951 USAF and NBS 1963A Resolution Test Targets
  • Positive NBS 1952 Resolution Test Targets
  • Sector Star Targets
  • Ronchi Ruling Targets
  • Variable Line Grating Targets
  • High-Contrast Positive Reflective Versions Available
  • Combined Resolution and Distortion Target

Resolution test targets are typically used to measure the resolution of an imaging system. They consist of reference line patterns with well-defined thicknesses and spacings and are designed to be placed in the same plane as the object being imaged. By identifying the largest set of non-distinguishable lines, one determines the resolving power of a given system. Thorlabs offers resolution test targets with 1951 USAF, NBS 1952, and NBS 1963A patterns. Targets are also available with sector star (also known as Siemens star) patterns, Ronchi rulings, a variable line grating, or a combination of patterns for resolution and distortion testing. For more information on each pattern, see the Resolution Targets tab.

All of our resolution test targets are available as positive targets, and many have negative versions as well. We also offer several versions of high-contrast positive reflective targets. The positive targets consist of low-reflectivity, vacuum-sputtered chrome patterns plated on clear substrates and are useful for front-lit and general applications. The negative targets use chrome to cover the substrates, leaving the patterns clear, and work well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications. The positive reflective targets are composed of an antireflection-coated (AR-coated) chrome pattern etched on soda lime glass with an uncoated chrome background for high contrast in reflective applications. See the Graphs tab for spectral data of the materials used in these test targets. Each pattern is manufactured using photolithography, allowing for edge features to be resolved down to approximately 1 µm.

Mounting
These resolution test targets can be mounted in one of four of our microscopy slide holders. Our MAX3SLH Fixed Slide Holder provides two spring clips to mount the optic and can be mounted to any of our 3-axis translation stages. The MAX3SLH is only compatible with test targets greater than or equal to 2" wide and provides a clear aperture of 1", which may cover the chrome pattern on some of the test targets. Thorlabs also offers our XYF1(/M) Test Target Positioning Mount (see photo to the right) capable of translating a 1" to 3" wide rectangular target over a 50 mm x 30 mm area. The mount offers five 8-32 (M4) taps for six post-mountable orientations. The XYF1 uses nylon-tipped setscrews to secure the optic. Please note that the mount's support arms overlap the optic by 4.4 mm on each side. For users of the MLS203 Microscopy stage we offer the MLS203P2 Slide Holder for Inverted Microscopes, which can mount slides 25 mm to 26.5 mm wide and petri dishes 30 mm to 60 mm in diameter.

Photolithographic Target Manufacturing
Our extensive production capabilities enable us to provide solutions for imaging system calibration and measurements. We use contact photolithography with a mask aligner to define the pattern on the glass substrate. Once the pattern is defined, we chemically etch the substrates and clean them in a class 100 cleanroom.

Birefringent Target Manufacturing
The R2L2S1B Birefringent Resolution Target has a pattern that is invisible unless viewed through a pair of crossed polarizers, making it ideal for calibration of polarization-sensitive systems. It is created by using a photo alignment process to set the fast axis of the liquid crystal polymer layer, which is protected by two N-BK7 glass covers. The device is engineered so that the fast axis of the overall target is aligned parallel to the side of the glass covers, whereas the fast axis for the patterned area is aligned 45° to this edge. The entire target has a retardation of 280 ± 20 nm. Additionally, it can display both positive and negative patterns by changing the orientation of the crossed polarizers. If the crossed polarizers are aligned with the sides of the glass covers, the positive image will be formed. If the crossed polarizers are aligned at 45° to the sides of the glass covers, the negative image will be formed.

Thorlabs also offers a complete line of reticles for superimposing a reference pattern onto an object.

Targets Selection Guide
Resolution Test Targets Distortion Test Targets Slant Edge MTF Resolution Test Targets Calibration Targets

Hide Resolution Targets

RESOLUTION TARGETS


Click to Enlarge

Line pairs help measure how well a camera can distinguish two objects from one another.

Imaging Resolution

The resolution of an imaging system is often specified in line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm), where a line pair is one light line and one dark line. This value represents the smallest distance between two objects that can be registered by the system; a higher value in lp/mm means the distance between each pair of lines is smaller.

The diagram to the right illustrates the resolution limit of a system. The line pair imaged by the camera on the left cannot be resolved; the two lines are registered by adjacent pixels on the camera sensor, causing them to appear as a single object. In contrast, the line pair on the right has a greater spacing, and thus can be resolved by the system.

The sections below describe the line patterns found on the resolution test targets sold on this page.


1951 USAF Targets

  • Conforms to MIL-S-150A Standard
  • Spurious Resolution Minimized by Line Sets of Three
  • Positive and Negative Targets Available
  • 3" x 3" Targets (10 Groups), 3" x 1" Wheel Pattern Targets (6 Groups), 18 mm x 18 mm Combined Targets (6 Groups), and Ø1" Targets (6 Groups)

These resolution targets have a series of horizontal and vertical lines that are used to determine the resolution of an imaging system. A set of six elements (horizontal and vertical line pairs) are in one group, and ten groups compose the resolution chart. The image below shows Elements 2 and 3 of Group -2 on a resolution target.

With line sets of three, these targets offer the advantage of an increased ability to recognize spurious resolution. Spurious resolution occurs when a set of lines is sufficiently blurred such that the overlap appears to form inverted, more distinct lines. This can cause a misreading of the resolution of the optical system, since it will appear that the lines are distinguishable. Spurious resolution also results in the appearance of one less line than exists in the line set. Since the difference between three lines and two is more easily noticed than the difference between five lines and four, for example, it is easier to recognize the occurrence of spurious resolution in targets with sets of only three lines.

The spacing between the lines in each element is equal to the thickness of the line itself. When the target is imaged, the resolution of an imaging system can be determined by viewing the clarity of the horizontal and vertical lines. The largest set of non-distinguishable horizontal and vertical lines determines the resolving power of the imaging system. The chart below lists the number of line pairs per millimeter for a given element within a group based on the equation below. With our resolution targets, the maximum resolution is 228.0 line pairs per millimeter, which equates to roughly 4.4 µm per line pair. The 3" x 3" targets feature ten groups from -2 to +7; the 3" x 1" wheel pattern versions feature 9 targets, each with groups +2 to +7; the 18 mm x 18 mm (0.71" x 0.71") combined targets feature six groups from +2 to +7; and the Ø1" targets feature six groups, from +2 to +7.

Resolution Target
Example Line Sets

Test Target Equation

Element Group Number
  -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 0.250 0.500 1.00 2.00 4.00 8.00 16.00 32.00 64.00 128.00
2 0.280 0.561 1.12 2.24 4.49 8.98 17.95 36.0 71.8 144.0
3 0.315 0.630 1.26 2.52 5.04 10.10 20.16 40.3 80.6 161.0
4 0.353 0.707 1.41 2.83 5.66 11.30 22.62 45.3 90.5 181.0
5 0.397 0.793 1.59 3.17 6.35 12.70 25.39 50.8 102.0 203.0
6 0.445 0.891 1.78 3.56 7.13 14.30 28.50 57.0 114.0 228.0

Values are in lp/mm.


NBS 1952
Click to Enlarge

Close Up of the R3L3S6P NBS 1952 Target

NBS 1952 Targets

  • Allows for One-Pass Scanning
  • Spurious Resolution Minimized by Line Sets of Three
  • Positive Targets Available
  • 1" x 3" and 3" x 3" Sizes

NBS 1952 Targets have sets of three vertical lines and sets of three horizontal lines. Each line and the space between it and the next line can be thought of as a line pair or a cycle. The resolution that each target is able to test is given by the frequency of line pairs in line pairs/mm (lp/mm). A list of every frequency available between our two NBS 1952 targets is given in the table below, along with the corresponding line widths.

These targets offer two main advantages: the minimization of spurious resolution and the feasibility of one-pass scanning. Spurious resolution occurs when a set of lines is sufficiently blurred such that the overlap appears to form inverted, more distinct lines. This can cause a misreading of the resolution of the optical system, since it will appear that the lines are distinguishable. Spurious resolution also results in the appearance of one less line than exists in the line set. Since the difference between three lines and two is more easily noticed than the difference between five lines and four, for example, it is easier to recognize the occurrence of spurious resolution in targets with sets of only three lines.

The advantage of one-pass scanning is made possible by the arrangement of the line sets on these targets. The horizontal and vertical line sets are arranged in an identical fashion, with identical frequencies, such that the target is symmetric across a diagonal line from the upper left to the lower right. If one scans from left to right or from top to bottom on the target, the frequency of the lines will increase until the center is reached and then decrease to the opposite edge. Whether done horizontally or vertically, this single pass across the full pattern covers each frequency available on the target. Thus, movement in only one direction is required to determine the resolution of an optical system.

Resolution (lp/mm) Line Width (µm) Resolution (lp/mm) Line Width (µm) Resolution (lp/mm) Line Width (µm) Resolution (lp/mm) Line Width (µm)
0.48 1041.7 2.24 223.2 6.8 73.5 20 25
0.56 892.9 2.4 208.3 8 62.5 24 20.8
0.68 735.3 2.72 183.3 9.6 52.1 28 17.9
0.8 625 2.8 176.8 11.2 44.6 34 14.7
0.96 520.8 3.2 156.3 12 41.7 40 12.5
1.12 446.4 3.4 147.1 13.6 36.8 48 10.4
1.36 367.6 4 125 14 35.7 56 8.9
1.6 312.5 4.8 104.2 16 31.3 68 7.4
1.92 260.4 5.6 89.3 17 29.4 80 6.3

NBS1963A
Click to Enlarge

Microscope Image of R2L2S1N Negative Test Target

NBS 1963A Targets

  • Positive, Negative, and Birefringent Targets Available
  • High-Frequency Option
  • 2" x 2" Size for Dedicated Targets, 1" x 3" Size for Combined Target

NBS 1963A Targets have line sets of five vertical and five horizontal lines. Each line and the space between it and the next line can be thought of as a line pair or a cycle. The resolution that each target is able to test is given by the frequency of the cycles in cycles/mm. On Thorlabs' NBS 1963A targets, each line set is labeled with its frequency. By determining the smallest lines that are distinguishable (highest cycles/mm), you can determine the resolution of an imaging system.

Our standard NBS 1963A targets offer 26 line sets with resolutions scaled from 1.0 cycles/mm to 18.0 cycles/mm. For more rigorous resolution testing, our high-frequency NBS 1963A targets have 48 line sets with frequencies from 1.0 cycles/mm to 228 cycles/mm, and our R1L3S5P combined resolution and distortion test target has 35 line sets with frequencies from 4.5 cycles/mm to 228 cycles/mm. The size of each cycle is simply the reciprocal of the frequency and is given for all available frequencies in the table below. For the individual line width, divide the cycle size in half.

Cycles/mm Cycle Size Cycles/mm Cycle Size Cycles/mm Cycle Size Cycles/mm Cycle Size
1.0 1.00 mm 4.0 0.250 mm 16.0 0.063 mm 64.0 0.016 mm
1.1 0.909 mm 4.5 0.222 mm 18.0 0.056 mm 72.0 0.014 mm
1.25 0.800 mm 5.0 0.200 mm 20.0 0.05 mm 81.0 0.012 mm
1.4 0.714 mm 5.6 0.179 mm 23.0 0.043 mm 91.0 0.011 mm
1.6 0.625 mm 6.3 0.159 mm 25.0 0.040 mm 102 0.010 mm
1.8 0.556 mm 7.1 0.141 mm 29.0 0.034 mm 114 0.009 mm
2.0 0.500 mm 8.0 0.125 mm 32.0 0.031 mm 128 0.008 mm
2.2 0.455 mm 9.0 0.111 mm 36.0 0.028 mm 144 0.007 mm
2.5 0.400 mm 10.0 0.100 mm 40.0 0.025 mm 161 0.0062 mm
2.8 0.357 mm 11.0 0.091 mm 45.0 0.022 mm 181 0.0055 mm
3.2 0.313 mm 12.5 0.080 mm 51.0 0.020 mm 203 0.0049 mm
3.6 0.278 mm 14.0 0.071 mm 57.0 0.018 mm 228 0.0044 mm

Siemens Star Pattern
Click to Enlarge

Close Up of the R1L1S3P Sector Star Pattern

Sector Star Targets

Sector star targets, also known as Siemens star targets, consist of a number of dark bars that increase in thickness as they radiate out from a shared center. The blank spaces between the bars can themselves be thought of as light bars, and they are designed to be the same thickness as the dark bars at any given radial distance. Theoretically, the bars meet only at the exact middle point of the target. Some sector star targets, including all those sold on this page, have a blank center circle that cuts the bars off before they touch. However, depending on the resolution of the optical system through which the targets are viewed, the bars will appear to touch at some distance from the center. By measuring this distance, the user is able to define the resolution of the optical system.

To calculate the resolution at any given radial distance from the center of the sector star, start by calculating the thickness of a line pair, or one dark bar and one light bar, at that radius. This can be done using the formula for the chord length, given below, where r is the radial distance from the center. The angle Θ is the number of degrees covered by one pair of light and dark bars and is equal to 360° divided by the total number of bars. Once the thickness of the line pair is calculated, the resolution is the reciprocal of the thickness.

chord length equationresolution equation

Thorlabs offers two dedicated sector star targets (R1L1S2P and R1L1S3P) and three targets that include sector stars along with other patterns (R1L3S5P, R1L1S1P, and R1L1S1N). The table below summarizes the sector star pattern on each target.

Item # Pattern Type Sector Star Pattern Outer Diameter Center Circle Diameter Number of Bars Resolution at Outer Diameter Resolution at Center Circle
R1L1S2P Positive 10 mm 200 µm 36 Over 360° 1.15 lp/mm 57.5 lp/mm
R1L1S3P 72 Over 360° 2.29 lp/mm 115 lp/mm
R1L3S5P Positive 2 mm 100 µm 36 Over 360° 5.75 lp/mm 115 lp/mm
R1L1S1P Positive 2 mm 20 µm 36 Over 360° 5.75 lp/mm 575 lp/mm
R1L1S1N Negative

Ronchi Rulings
Click to Enlarge

Close Up of R1L3S14N Ronchi Ruling Pattern

Ronchi Rulings

Ronchi ruling targets are optical targets consisting of square wave, constant-interval bars as seen in the image to the right. The design produces a precise, large-area, single-frequency pattern and is excellent for evaluating resolution, field distortion, and parfocal stability in optical systems. The grating resolution is defined by the number of line pairs in a given amount of space and is given in line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm).

Thorlabs offers Ronchi ruling targets with a range of resolutions from 10 lp/mm to 80 lp/mm. The table below gives the included pattern resolution and aperture of each target.

Item # Resolution Clear Aperture
R1L3S12N 10 lp/mm 65 mm x 17 mm
R1L3S13N 20 lp/mm
R1L3S14N 40 lp/mm
R1L3S15N 80 lp/mm

Siemens Star Pattern
Click to Enlarge

Close Up of R1L3S6P Variable Line Grating Pattern

Variable Line Gratings

Line gratings consist of dark, parallel bars with widths that are equal to the distance between them. In any line grating, one dark bar and one blank space compose a line pair. The resolution of an optical system is dependent on its ability to distinguish adjacent line pairs. Thus, the grating resolution is defined by the number of line pairs in a given amount of space and is typically given in line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm). A variable line grating has some number of grating sections, which increase or decrease in resolution as you move from one to the next. By identifying the highest resolution line grating that an optical system is able to resolve, the user determines the resolution of the system.

Thorlabs offers a variable line grating target with a range of resolutions from 1.25 lp/mm to 250 lp/mm. The table below gives the included resolutions along with a conversion of the line pair size.

lp/mm Line Pair Size lp/mm Line Pair Size lp/mm Line Pair Size
1.25 0.80 mm 3.85 0.26 mm 16.67 0.06 mm
1.67 0.60 mm 4.17 0.24 mm 50 0.02 mm
2.08 0.48 mm 5.0 0.20 mm 100 0.01 mm
2.5 0.40 mm 6.67 0.15 mm 200 0.005 mm
2.86 0.35 mm 10.0 0.10 mm 250 0.004 mm
3.33 0.30 mm 12.5 0.08 mm - -

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GRAPHS

Substrates Spectra
Click to Enlarge

Soda Lime Glass Transmission
Substrates Spectra
Click to Enlarge

Spectral Curves of Reflective Test Targets
The large difference between the uncoated (blue line) and AR-coated chrome (red line) in the visible region means that the positive reflective targets have high contrast between the pattern and the background.

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CUSTOM CAPABILITIES


Jason Williamson
General Manager
Thorlabs Spectral Works
Questions?
Need a Quote?
Contact Me
Customization Parameters
Substrate Sizea Min 8 mm x 8 mm (5/16" x 5/16")
Max 85 mm x 85 mm (3.35" x 3.35")
Substrate Materials Soda Lime Glass
UV Fused Silica
Quartz
Coating Material Reflective or Antireflective Chrome
Coating Optical Density >3b or >6c @ 430 nm
Minimum Pinhole/Spot Ø1 µm
Minimum Line Width 1 µm
Line Width Tolerance -0.25 / +0.50 µm
Maximum Line Density 250 lines/mm
  • Substrates can be diced to custom shapes and sizes.
  • Optical densities of >3 @ 430 nm for UV fused silica substrates and standard soda lime substrates.
  • Optical density of >6 @ 430 nm for quartz substrates and select soda lime substrates. 

Custom OEM Test Targets and Reticles

Our in-house photolithographic design and production capabilities enable us to create a range of patterned optics. We manufacture test targets, distortion grids, and reticles at our Thorlabs Spectral Works facility in Columbia, South Carolina. These components have served a wide variety of applications, being implemented in microscopes, imaging systems, and optical alignment setups.

In addition to our catalog test targets and reticles offered from stock, we can provide custom chrome patterns on soda lime, UV fused silica, or quartz substrates from 8 mm by 8 mm up to 85 mm by 85 mm. Substrates can be cut to shape for your application. Our photolithographic coating process allows us to create chrome features down to 1 µm. A few sample patterns are shown below, which can made positive or negative, as shown in the image directly below.

For a quote on custom test targets and reticles, please contact us at TSW@thorlabs.com.

Example Applications

  • Etched Reticles
  • Gray Scale Masks
  • Resolution Reticles
  • Diagnostic Reticles
  • Recreational Scopes
  • Notching Reticles
  • Eyepiece Scales
  • Illuminated Crosshairs
  • Obstruction Targets
  • Binocular Reticles

Click to Enlarge

Positive and Negative Crosshair Sample Pattern

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CLEANING

This tab details an optimal cleaning technique developed by our engineers for cleaning reticles, test targets, distortion targets, and calibration targets.

Cleaning Procedure

  1. Use a clean wet sponge, preferably made of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and dish detergent to gently scrub the front and back surfaces of your reticle or target.
  2. Rinse with water.
  3. Blow dry with clean dry air, or allow the reticle or target to air dry on a clean surface.

We do not suggest using a towel, rag, or wipe to dry the surface. If contamination persists, soak the reticle or target in a detergent and water solution for 1 hour, repeating as necessary.


Hide 1951 USAF Resolution Test Targets, Ø1"

1951 USAF Resolution Test Targets, Ø1"

Microscope View of the R1DS1N
Click to Enlarge
Microscope Image of R1DS1N Negative Test Target
Optical Specifications
Item # R1DS1P R1DS1N
Pattern Chrome Clear
Background Clear Chrome
Surface Flatness <50 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • Ø1" (Ø25.4 mm) Targets for Alignment in Ø1" Lens Tubes
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Conforms to MIL-S-150A Standard
  • Positive and Negative Targets Available
  • Sets of Three Lines Minimize Spurious Resolution

Thorlabs offers positive and negative Ø1" (Ø25.4 mm) resolution test targets that are made by plating vacuum-sputtered chrome on a soda lime glass substrate. These targets have 6 groups (+2 to +7) with 6 elements, offering a maximum resolution of 228.0 line pairs (one light line and one dark line) per millimeter. For more information on the 1951 USAF pattern, please see the Resolution Targets tab above.

Because these targets feature sets of three lines, they reduce the occurrence of spurious resolution and thus help prevent inaccurate resolution measurements. For more information on spurious resolution, please see the Resolution Targets tab.

The R1DS1P positive target consists of a chrome pattern with low reflectance plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R1DS1N negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.


Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R1DS1P
Customer Inspired! Positive 1951 USAF Test Target, Ø1"
$141.97
Today
R1DS1N
Customer Inspired! Negative 1951 USAF Test Target, Ø1"
$141.97
Today

Hide 1951 USAF Wheel Pattern Resolution Test Targets, 3" x 1"

1951 USAF Wheel Pattern Resolution Test Targets, 3" x 1"

USAF1951
Click to Enlarge
Microscope Image of R3L1S4N Negative Test Target
Optical Specifications
Item # R3L1S4P R3L1S4N R3L1S4PR
Pattern Chrome Clear AR-Coated Chrome
Background Clear Chrome Uncoated Chrome
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0 -
Chrome Reflectancea - AR Coated: <10%
Uncoated: >40%
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) Targets for Measuring Resolution Across Image
  • Determine the Resolution of an Optical System
  • Conforms to MIL-S-150A Standard
  • Positive, Negative, and Positive Reflective Targets Available
  • Compatible with our MLS203 Microscope Stages via MLS203P2 Slide Holder

Thorlabs offers positive and negative 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) resolution test targets that are made by plating vacuum-sputtered chrome on a soda lime glass substrate. The 3" x 1" wheel pattern targets have nine 1951 USAF targets, each with 6 groups (+2 to +7), offering a maximum resolution of 228.0 line pairs (one light line and one dark line) per millimeter. For more information on the 1951 USAF pattern, please see the Resolution Targets tab above.

Because these targets feature sets of three lines, they reduce the occurrence of spurious resolution and thus help prevent inaccurate resolution measurements. For more information on spurious resolution, please see the Resolution Targets tab.

Thorlabs offers the R3L1S4P positive target composed of a chrome pattern etched on soda lime glass, useful for front-lit and general applications, with a clear soda lime substrate background for for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R3L1S4N negative target uses the chrome to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications. The R3L1S4PR positive reflective target is composed of a dark AR-coated chrome pattern on an uncoated chrome background; the high contrast between the pattern and the background makes this target ideal for reflective applications. See the Graphs tab for details.


Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R3L1S4P
Positive 1951 USAF Wheel Pattern Test Target, 3" x 1"
$226.27
Today
R3L1S4N
Negative 1951 USAF Wheel Pattern Test Target, 3" x 1"
$226.27
Today
R3L1S4PR
Positive Reflective 1951 USAF Wheel Pattern Test Target, 3" x 1"
$226.27
Today

Hide 1951 USAF Resolution Test Targets, 3" x 3"

1951 USAF Resolution Test Targets, 3" x 3"

USAF1951
Click to Enlarge
Microscope Image of R3L3S1N Negative Test Target
Optical Specifications
Item # R3L3S1P R3L3S1N R3L3S1PR
Pattern Chrome Clear AR-Coated Chrome
Background Clear Chrome Uncoated Chrome
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0 -
Chrome Reflectancea - AR Coated: <10%
Uncoated: >40%
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • 3" x 3" (76.2 mm x 76.2 mm) Targets Offer Resolution up to 4.4 µm per Line Pair
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Conforms to MIL-S-150A Standard
  • Positive, Negative, and Positive Reflective Targets Available

Thorlabs offers positive and negative 3" x 3" (76.2 mm x 76.2 mm) resolution test targets that are made by plating chrome on a soda lime glass substrate. The 3" x 3" targets have 10 groups (-2 to +7) with 6 elements per group, offering a maximum resolution of 228.0 line pairs (one light line and one dark line) per millimeter. For more information on the 1951 USAF pattern, please see the Resolution Targets tab above.

Because these targets feature sets of three lines, they reduce the occurrence of spurious resolution and thus help prevent inaccurate resolution measurements. For more information on spurious resolution, please see the Resolution Targets tab.

Thorlabs offers the R3L3S1P positive target composed of a chrome pattern etched on soda lime glass, useful for front-lit and general applications, with a clear soda lime substrate background for for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R3L3S1N negative target uses the chrome to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications. The R3L3S1PR positive reflective target is composed of a dark AR-coated chrome pattern on an uncoated chrome background; the high contrast between the pattern and the background makes this target ideal for reflective applications. See the Graphs tab for details.


Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R3L3S1P
Positive 1951 USAF Test Target, 3" x 3"
$203.98
Today
R3L3S1N
Negative 1951 USAF Test Target, 3" x 3"
$203.98
Today
R3L3S1PR
Positive Reflective 1951 USAF Test Target, 3" x 3"
$203.98
Today

Hide NBS 1952 Resolution Test Target, 3" x 1"

NBS 1952 Resolution Test Target, 3" x 1"

NBS 1952
Click to Enlarge
Close Up of the R1L3S10P NBS 1952 Target
Optical Specifications
Pattern Chrome
Background Clear
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) Target for Measuring Resolution with One-Pass Scanning
  • NBS 1952 Target with Centered Crosshair
  • Resolutions from 2.4 to 80 lp/mm
  • Sets of Three Lines Minimize Spurious Resolution

Thorlabs' 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) NBS 1952 Resolution Target offers 48 sets of lines with 24 different frequencies ranging from 2.4 to 80 line pairs (one light line and one dark line) per millimeter (lp/mm), as listed in the table below. In the center of the NBS 1952 target is a crosshair with a length and width of 610 µm and two concentric circles with diameters of 250 µm and 500 µm. Because the line sets on this target are arranged such that every resolution can be viewed by traveling in only one direction (either horizontally or vertically) along the pattern, the resolution of an optical system can be determined with one pass. For more information about the NBS 1952 pattern, please see the Resolution Targets tab above.

Because this target features sets of three lines, it reduces the occurrence of spurious resolution and thus helps prevent inaccurate resolution measurements. For more information on spurious resolution, please see the Resolution Targets tab.

The pattern on this target is made from plating low-reflectivity, vacuum-sputtered chrome on a 0.06" (1.5 mm) thick soda lime glass substrate to achieve an optical density of ≥3.0 at 430 nm. The dark pattern and clear substrate are useful for front-lit and general applications.

NBS 1952 Pattern Resolutions
Resolution (lp/mm) 2.4 2.8 3.4 4.0 4.8 5.6 6.8 8.0 9.6 11.2 12 13.6 14 16 17 20 24 28 34 40 48 56 68 80
Line Width (µm) 208.3 176.8 147.1 125.0 104.2 89.3 73.5 62.5 52.1 44.6 41.7 36.8 35.7 31.3 29.4 25.0 20.8 17.9 14.7 12.5 10.4 8.9 7.4 6.3

Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R1L3S10P
Positive NBS 1952 Resolution Target, 3" x 1", 2.4 to 80 lp/mm
$113.13
Today

Hide NBS 1952 Resolution Test Target, 3" x 3"

NBS 1952 Resolution Test Target, 3" x 3"

NBS 1952
Click to Enlarge
Close Up of the R3L3S6P NBS 1952 Target
Optical Specifications
Pattern Chrome
Background Clear
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • 3" x 3" (76.2 mm x 76.2 mm) Target for Measuring Resolution with One-Pass Scanning
  • NBS 1952 Target with Centered Crosshair
  • Resolutions from 0.48 to 16 lp/mm
  • Sets of Three Lines Minimize Spurious Resolution

Thorlabs' 3" x 3" (76.2 mm x 76.2 mm) NBS 1952 Resolution Target offers 48 sets of lines with 24 different frequencies ranging from 0.48 to 16 line pairs (one light line and one dark line) per millimeter (lp/mm), as listed in the table below. In the center of the NBS 1952 target is a crosshair with a length and width of 3100 µm and two concentric circles with diameters of 1250 µm and 2500 µm. Because the line sets on this target are arranged such that every resolution can be viewed by traveling in only one direction (either horizontally or vertically) along the pattern, the resolution of an optical system can be determined with one pass. For more information about the NBS 1952 pattern, please see the Resolution Targets tab above.

Because this target features sets of three lines, it reduces the occurrence of spurious resolution and thus helps prevent inaccurate resolution measurements. For more information on spurious resolution, please see the Resolution Targets tab.

The pattern on this target is made from plating low-reflectivity, vacuum-sputtered chrome on a 0.06" (1.5 mm) thick soda lime glass substrate to achieve an optical density of ≥3.0 at 430 nm. The dark pattern and clear substrate are useful for front-lit and general applications.

NBS 1952 Pattern Resolutions
Resolution (lp/mm) 0.48 0.56 0.68 0.8 0.96 1.12 1.36 1.6 1.92 2.24 2.4 2.72 2.8 3.2 3.4 4.0 4.8 5.6 6.8 8.0 9.6 11.2 13.6 16
Line Width (µm) 1041.7 892.9 735.3 625 520.8 446.4 367.6 312.5 260.4 223.2 208.3 183.8 176.8 156.3 147.1 125.0 104.2 89.3 73.5 62.5 52.1 44.6 36.8 31.3

Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R3L3S6P
Positive NBS 1952 Resolution Target, 3" x 3", 0.48 to 16 lp/mm
$174.79
Today

Hide NBS 1963A Resolution Test Targets, 2" x 2"

NBS 1963A Resolution Test Targets, 2" x 2"

NBS1963A
Click to Enlarge
Microscope Image of R2L2S1N Negative Test Target

 

Frequencies (cycles/mm)
  • 1 • 2.2 • 5 • 11
  • 1.1 • 2.5 • 5.6 • 12.5
  • 1.25 • 2.8 • 6.3 • 14
  • 1.4 • 3.2 • 7.1 • 16
  • 1.6 • 3.6 • 8 • 18
  • 1.8 • 4 • 9
  • 2 • 4.5 • 10

See the Resolution Targets tab above for more details on the test patterns.

Optical Specifications
Item # R2L2S1P R2L2S1N
Pattern Chrome Clear
Background Clear Chrome
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • Frequencies from 1 to 18 cycles/mm (See List to the Right)
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) Soda Lime Glass Substrate
  • Positive and Negative Targets Available

Thorlabs' 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) NBS 1963A resolution test targets offer 26 line sets with frequencies from 1 to 18 cycles/mm, corresponding to cycle sizes from 1.0 mm to 55.6 µm (see the table to the right and the Resolution Targets tab for more information). Each set of lines on the pattern contains five horizontal and five vertical lines and is labeled with the frequency of the lines in cycles/mm, as shown in the images to the right. The resolution of an optical system can be determined by identifying the highest frequency line set that the system is able to resolve.

These resolution targets are offered in positive and negative versions. The R2L2S1P positive target consists of a chrome pattern with low reflectance plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R2L2S1N negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.


Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R2L2S1P
Positive NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2", 1 to 18 cycles/mm
$203.98
Today
R2L2S1N
Negative NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2", 1 to 18 cycles/mm
$203.98
Today

Hide High-Frequency NBS 1963A Resolution Test Targets, 2" x 2"

High-Frequency NBS 1963A Resolution Test Targets, 2" x 2"


Click for Details

Line sets with frequencies of 32 and 29 cycles/mm on the R2L2S1N1 negative target. The enlarged image shows line sets of 7.1 through 228 cycles/mm.

Click for Details

Line sets with frequencies of 32 and 29 cycles/mm on the R2L2S1P1 positive target. The enlarged image shows line sets of 7.1 through 228 cycles/mm.
Optical Specifications
Item # R2L2S1P1 R2L2S1N1
Pattern Chrome Clear
Background Clear Chrome
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • Frequencies from 1 to 228 cycles/mm (See List Below)
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) Soda Lime Glass Substrate
  • Positive and Negative Targets Available

Thorlabs' 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) high-frequency NBS 1963A resolution test targets offer 48 line sets with frequencies from 1 to 228 cycles/mm, corresponding to cycle sizes from 1.0 mm to 4.4 µm (see the table below and the Resolution Targets tab for more information). Each set of lines on the pattern contains five horizontal and five vertical lines and is labeled with the frequency of the lines in cycles/mm, as shown in the images to the right. The resolution of an optical system can be determined by identifying the highest frequency line set that the system is able to resolve.

These resolution targets are offered in positive and negative versions. The R2L2S1P1 positive target consists of a chrome pattern with low reflectance plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R2L2S1N1 negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.

Frequencies (cycles/mm)
  • 1 • 1.6 • 2.5 • 4.0 • 6.3 • 10 • 16 • 25 • 40 • 64 • 102 • 161
  • 1.1 • 1.8 • 2.8 • 4.5 • 7.1 • 11 • 18 • 29 • 45 • 72 • 114 • 181
  • 1.25 • 2.0 • 3.2 • 5.0 • 8.0 • 12.5 • 20 • 32 • 51 • 81 • 128 • 203
  • 1.4 • 2.2 • 3.6 • 5.6 • 9.0 • 14 • 23 • 36 • 57 • 91 • 144 • 228

See the Resolution Targets tab above for more details on the test patterns.


Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R2L2S1P1
Customer Inspired! Positive NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2", 1 to 228 cycles/mm
$226.27
Today
R2L2S1N1
Customer Inspired! Negative NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2", 1 to 228 cycles/mm
$226.27
Today

Hide NBS 1963A Birefringent Resolution Target, 2" x 2"

NBS 1963A Birefringent Resolution Target, 2" x 2"

R2L2S1B Pattern Reference
Click for Details
This image depicts the pattern placement relative to the inscribed rectangles on the front of the test target.
R2L2S1B Positive and Negative Patterns
Click for Details
Image of R2L2S1B as seen through two crossed wire grid polarizers. The enlarged image shows the positive pattern on the left and negative pattern on the right.
Optical Specifications
Design Liquid Crystal Polymer
Between N-BK7 Plates
Retardance 280 nm
Retardance Accuracya <λ/50
Retardance Uniformity <10 nm
  • Specified at 633 nm.
  • Determine Resolution of a Polarizing Optical System
  • Birefringent Target Displays Both Positive and Negative Patterns
  • Frequencies from 1 to 18 cycles/mm (See List Below)
  • 2" × 2" (50.8 mm × 50.8 mm) N-BK7 Glass Substrate

Thorlabs offers a birefringent 2" x 2" (50.8 mm x 50.8 mm) NBS 1963A resolution test target that is made by sandwiching a birefringent pattern between two N-BK7 glass substrates. The test pattern is only observable if the target is placed between a pair of crossed polarizers (see image to the right).

The target is designed so that it can display both positive and negative patterns by adjusting the orientation of the crossed polarizers relative to the test target. If the cross polarizers are aligned with the sides of the glass covers, the positive image will be formed. If the cross polarizers are aligned at 45° to the sides of the glass covers, the negative image will be formed. Because of its polarization sensitivity, this resolution target is ideal for calibrating and testing the resolution of polarizing microscopes, microscopes with a Nomarski mode, polarization imaging systems, or Mueller Matrix polarimeters.

This target has 26 sets of five horizontal and five vertical lines. Each set of lines is labeled with a number, which refers to the number of cycles per mm. With a maximum frequency of 18 cycles/mm, the smallest cycles are only 0.0556 mm. For more information, please see the Resolution Targets tab above. Since the pattern is only visible through crossed polarizers, the target is inscribed with two rectangles for reference. The image on the far right shows the pattern placement with respect to these inscribed rectangles.

 

Frequencies (cycles/mm)
  • 1 • 1.25 • 1.6 • 2 • 2.5 • 3.2 • 4 • 5 • 6.3 • 8 • 10 • 12.5 • 16
  • 1.1 • 1.4 • 1.8 • 2.2 • 2.8 • 3.6 • 4.5 • 5.6 • 7.1 • 9 • 11 • 14 • 18

See the Resolution Targets tab above for more details on the test patterns.


Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R2L2S1B
Birefringent NBS 1963A Resolution Target, 2" x 2"
$339.40
Lead Time

Hide Sector Star Targets, 1" x 1"

Sector Star Targets, 1" x 1"

Siemens Star Pattern
Click to Enlarge
Close Up of the R1L1S3P Sector Star Pattern
  • 1" x 1" (25.4 mm x 25.4 mm) Positive Sector Star Targets
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Low-Reflectance, Vacuum-Sputtered Chrome on Soda Lime Glass

Thorlabs offers two 1" (25.4 mm) square targets with positive Sector star (also known as Siemens star) patterns. The R1L1S2P target has 36 bars over 360°. The resolution at the center circle of this target is 57.5 lp/mm. Alternatively, the R1L1S3P target has 72 bars over 360°, and the resolution at the center is 115 lp/mm. Both targets also have a Ø200 µm center circle and are useful for determining the resolution of an optical system by noting how close to the center of the pattern an optical system is able to resolve adjacent bars. For more information about sector star patterns, please see the Resolution Targets tab.

Item # Pattern Background Surface
Flatness
Chrome Optical Density Pattern Outer Diameter Center Circle Diameter Number of Bars Resolution at Outer Diameter Resolution at Center Circle
R1L1S2P Chrome Clear ≤15 µm ≥3.0 at 340 nm 10 mm 200 µm 36 Over 360° 1.15 lp/mm 57.5 lp/mm
R1L1S3P 72 Over 360° 2.30 lp/mm 115 lp/mm

Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R1L1S2P
Customer Inspired! Positive Sector Star Test Target, 1" x 1", 36 Bars
$169.70
Today
R1L1S3P
Customer Inspired! Positive Sector Star Test Target, 1" x 1", 72 Bars
$249.57
Today

Hide Single-Frequency Ronchi Ruling Targets, 3" x 1"

Single-Frequency Ronchi Ruling Targets, 3" x 1"

Ronchi Ruling
Click to Enlarge

Close Up of R1L3S14N Ronchi Ruling Pattern
Optical Specifications
Pattern AR-Coated Chrome
Background Clear
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) Square Wave Ronchi Ruling Target
  • Patterns with 10 lp/mm, 20 lp/mm, 40 lp/mm, and 80 lp/mm
  • Large 65 mm x 17 mm Clear Aperture
  • Determine Resolution, Field Distortion, and Parfocal Stability in an Optical System
  • AR-Coated, Vacuum-Sputtered Chrome on Soda Lime Glass
  • Compatible with our MLS203 Microscope Stages via MLS203P2 Slide Holder

Thorlabs offers four versions of Ronchi ruling targets with resolutions ranging from 10 line pairs (one light line and one dark line) per millimeter (lp/mm) to 80 lp/mm. These square wave, constant-interval bar and space patterns are fabricated from the deposition of a dark AR-coated chrome pattern on a 3.00" x 1.00" x 0.06" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm x 1.5 mm) soda lime glass substrate. This leaves a large 65 mm x 17 mm clear aperture, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications. The dimensions of the glass substrate are the same as a standard microscope slide. These Ronchi rulings are excellent for evaluating resolution, field distortion, and parfocal stability in optical systems. For more information about the Ronchi rulings, please see the Resolution Targets tab above.


Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R1L3S12N
Ronchi Ruling Test Target, 3" x 1", 10 lp/mm
$153.75
Today
R1L3S13N
Ronchi Ruling Test Target, 3" x 1", 20 lp/mm
$153.75
Today
R1L3S14N
Ronchi Ruling Test Target, 3" x 1", 40 lp/mm
$153.75
Today
R1L3S15N
Ronchi Ruling Test Target, 3" x 1", 80 lp/mm
$153.75
Today

Hide Variable Line Grating, 3" x 1"

Variable Line Grating, 3" x 1"

Siemens Star Pattern
Click to Enlarge
Close Up of R1L3S6P Variable Line Grating Pattern
Optical Specifications
Item # R1L3S6P R1L3S6PR
Pattern Chrome AR-Coated Chrome
Background Clear Uncoated Chrome
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0 -
Chrome Reflectancea - AR Coated: <10%
Uncoated: >40%
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) Variable Line Grating Target
  • Resolutions from 1.25 lp/mm to 250 lp/mm
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Vacuum-Sputtered Chrome on Soda Lime Glass
  • Compatible with our MLS203 Microscope Stages via MLS203P2 Slide Holder
  • High-Contrast Positive Reflective Target Available

Thorlabs offers two 3" x 1" positive variable line gratings with 18 sections of line grating with resolutions ranging from 1.25 line pairs (one light line and one dark line) per millimeter (lp/mm) to 250 lp/mm. The table below lists of each available resolution. The resolution of an optical system can be measured by determining the highest resolution grating with lines that the system is able to resolve.

Thorlabs offers the R1L3S6P positive target composed of a chrome pattern etched on clear soda lime glass, useful for front-lit and general applications. The R1L3S6PR positive reflective target is composed of a dark AR-coated chrome pattern on an uncoated chrome background; the high contrast between the pattern and the background makes this target ideal for reflective applications. See the Graphs tab for details.

 

Resolutions of Included Line Gratings (lp/mm)
  • 1.25 • 2.08 • 2.86 • 3.85 • 5.00 • 10.0 • 16.67 • 50.0 • 200
  • 1.67 • 2.50 • 3.33 • 4.17 • 6.67 • 12.5 • 26.0 • 100 • 250

Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R1L3S6P
Customer Inspired! Positive Variable Line Grating Test Target, 3" x 1"
$509.12
7-10 Days
R1L3S6PR
Positive Reflective Variable Line Grating Test Target, 3" x 1"
$509.12
Today

Hide Concentric Circle and Crosshair Grid Target, 3" x 3"

Concentric Circle and Crosshair Grid Target, 3" x 3"

NBS 1952
Click to Enlarge
Close Up of the Smaller Grid on the R3L3S5P Target with Labels Added (See Tables Below)
NBS 1952
Click to Enlarge
Close Up of Entire Pattern on the R3L3S5P Target
Optical Specifications
Pattern Chrome
Background Clear
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • Concentric Circles and Crosshair Patterns Arranged in a Grid
  • Four Different Concentric Circle Sizes and Five Different Crosshair Sizes
  • Measure Resolution, Distortion, and Magnification of an Imaging System
  • 3" x 3" (76.2 mm x 76.2 mm) Soda Lime Glass Substrate

Thorlabs' 3" x 3" (76.2 mm x 76.2 mm) Concentric Circle and Crosshair Grid Target offers 289 individual grids, arranged in a larger, 2" x 2" grid of 17 rows and 17 columns. The smaller grids each have four concentric circle patterns and five crosshair patterns of varying sizes. The concentric circle and crosshair patterns on the smaller grids are labeled in the image to the right but not on the target itself. Each concentric circle pattern features seven different radii, while the crosshairs each have a single or a double cross. For details on the dimensions of these patterns, see the tables below.

The pattern on this target is made from plating low-reflectivity, vacuum-sputtered chrome on a 0.06" (1.5 mm) thick soda lime glass substrate to achieve an optical density of ≥3 at 430 nm. The dark pattern and clear substrate are useful for front-lit and general applications.

Concentric Circles
Circle Patterna R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7
A1 31.3 µm 62.5 µm 125 µm 140.6 µm 234.4 µm 242.2 µm 500 µm
A2 15.6 µm 31.3 µm 62.5 µm 70.3 µm 117.2 µm 121.1 µm 250 µm
A3 7.8 µm 15.6 µm 31.3 µm 35.2 µm 58.6 µm 60.5 µm 125 µm
A4 3.9 µm 7.8 µm 15.6 µm 17.6 µm 29.3 µm 30.3 µm 62.5 µm
  • As indicated by the photo above and to the right.
Crosshairs
Crosshair Patterna Single or Double Line Length/Width Line Widthb
B1 Double 500 µm 6.25 µm
B2 Double 500 µm 12.5 µm
B3 Single 500 µm 50 µm
B4 Double 500 µm 25 µm
B5 Double 500 µm 100 µm
  • As indicated by the photo above and to the right.
  • The line width is equal to the spacing between the lines.

Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R3L3S5P
Positive Concentric Circle and Crosshair Grid Target, 3" x 3"
$565.68
Today

Hide Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Targets, 18 mm x 18 mm

Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Targets, 18 mm x 18 mm

Combined Resolution Test Target
Click to Enlarge
Microscope Image of the R1S1L1N Negative Test Target
Optical Specifications
Item # R1L1S1P R1L1S1N
Pattern Chrome Clear
Background Clear Chrome
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • Measure Image Distortion, Astigmatism, and Other Aberrations
  • 18 mm (0.71") Square, 1.5 mm Thick Target
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Includes 1951 USAF Pattern, Sector Star, Concentric Circles, Grids, and Ronchi Rulings
  • Positive and Negative Targets Available

Thorlabs offers positive and negative 18 mm x 18 mm x 1.5 mm combined resolution / distortion test targets that are made by low-reflectivity, vacuum-sputtered chrome with an optical density of ≥3 at 430 nm on a soda lime glass substrate. They are ideal for calibration of imaging systems and microscope stages.

The test targets include a 1951 USAF pattern (Groups 2 - 7), a sector star, concentric circles, grids (100 µm, 50 µm, and 10 µm), and Ronchi rulings (30 - 150 lp/mm). These targets are useful for testing resolution, field distortion, focus errors, and astigmatism. The 1951 USAF targets are useful for measuring imaging resolution. For more information, please see the Resolution Targets tab above. The grids can be used to measure image distortion, while the concentric circles are ideal for identifying focus errors, astigmatism, and other aberrations existing in an imaging system. The Ronchi rulings are excellent for evaluating resolution, field distortion, and parfocal stability.

These resolution targets are offered in positive and negative versions. The R1L1S1P positive target consists of a chrome pattern with low reflectance plated on to a clear substrate and is useful for front-lit and general applications. Alternatively, the R1L1S1N negative target uses the same chrome coating to cover the substrate, leaving the pattern itself clear, and works well in back-lit and highly illuminated applications.

Target Feature Details Target Feature Details
1951 USAF Target Groups 2 - 7 Concentric Circles 10 Circles with Radii from 100 µm to 1000 µm in 100 µm Intervals, Labeled 1 to 10
Grids 20 x 20 Arrays with 100 µm, 50 µm, and 10 µm Pitch Ronchi Rulings 13 Rulings from 30 lp/mma to 150 lp/mm in 10 lp/mm Intervals
Sector Star 36 Bars through 360°, 10 µm Radius Center Circle, and Ten Concentric Circles with Radii from 50 µm to 500 µm in 50 µm Intervals
  • Line Pairs per Millimeter

Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R1L1S1P
Customer Inspired! Positive Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Target, 18 mm Square
$549.04
Today
R1L1S1N
Customer Inspired! Negative Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Target, 18 mm Square
$549.04
Today

Hide Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Target, 3" x 1"

Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Target, 3" x 1"

 

Frequencies of NBS 1963A (cycles/mm)
  • 4.5 • 10 • 23 • 51 • 114
  • 5 • 11 • 25 • 57 • 128
  • 5.6 • 12.5 • 29 • 64 • 144
  • 6.3 • 14 • 32 • 72 • 161
  • 7.1 • 16 • 36 • 81 • 181
  • 8 • 18 • 40 • 91 • 203
  • 9 • 20 • 45 • 102 • 228
Optical Specifications
Pattern Chrome
Background Clear
Surface Flatness ≤15 µm
Chrome Optical Densitya ≥3.0
  • Specified at 430 nm.
  • 3" x 1" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm) Target
  • Includes NBS 1963A Pattern, Sector Star, Concentric Circles, Grids, Ronchi Rulings, and More (See Table Below)
  • Determine Resolution of an Optical System
  • Measure Image Distortion, Astigmatism, and Other Aberrations
  • Compatible with our MLS203 Microscope Stages via MLS203P2 Slide Holder

Thorlabs offers positive 3" x 1" x 0.06" (76.2 mm x 25.4 mm x 1.5 mm) combined resolution / distortion test targets that are made by low-reflectivity, vacuum-sputtered chrome with an optical density of ≥3 at 430 nm on a soda lime glass substrate. They are ideal for calibration of imaging systems and microscope stages. They are sized to fit in our MLS203P2 stage slide holder for use with our MLS203 microscope stages.

The test targets include an NBS 1963A pattern, a sector (Siemens) star, concentric circles, grids, Ronchi rulings, and more (see table below). These targets are useful for testing resolution, field distortion, focus errors, and astigmatism. The NBS 1963A, sector star, and concentric circle targets are useful for measuring imaging resolution. For more information, please see the Resolution Targets tab above. The grids can be used to measure the distortion introduced by an imaging system. The Ronchi rulings are excellent for evaluating resolution, field distortion, and parfocal stability.

Target Feature Details Target Feature Details
NBS 1963A Frequencies from 4.5 cycles/mm to 228 cycles/mm (See List Above) Concentric Circles 10 Circles with Radii from 100 µm to 1000 µm in 100 µm Intervals
Distortion Grid (Squares) 3 Grids: 100 lp/mma, 150 lp/mm, 200 lp/mm Fixed Ronchi Rulings 3 Rulings:100 lp/mm, 150 lp/mm, and 200 lp/mm
Distortion Grid (Dots) 3 Grids: 400 µm Pitch of Ø80 µm Dots,
200 µm Pitch of Ø 40 µm Dots, 100 µm Pitch of Ø20 µm Dots
Variable Ronchi Rulings 20 Rulings (Each 1 mm x 1 mm): 10 lp/mm to 200 lp/mm in 10 lp/mm Intervals
Two-Point Resolution Dots Ø25 µm, Ø20 µm, Ø15 µm, Ø12.5 µm, Ø10 µm, Ø7.5 µm, and Ø5 µm Pinholes Ø25 µm, Ø20 µm, Ø15 µm, Ø12.5 µm, Ø10 µm, Ø7.5 µm, and Ø5 µm
Interdigitated Lines 6.25 lp/mm, 12.5 lp/mm, 25 lp/mm, 50 lp/mm, 100 lp/mm, and 200 lp/mm Micrometers 3 Rulers: 10 mm Scale with 50 µm Divs, 1 mm Scale with 10 µm Divs, and 1mm x 1 mm XY Scale with 50 µm Divs
Sector Star 36 Bars through 360°, 50 µm Radius Center Circle, and Ten Concentric Circles with Radii from 100 µm to 500 µm in 50 µm Intervals
  • The unit lp/mm is line pairs per millimeter.

Part Number
Description
Price
Availability
R1L3S5P
Customer Inspired! Positive Combined Resolution and Distortion Test Target, 3" x 1"
$1,018.21
Today