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Polarimeter Systems with High Dynamic Range


  • Three Models Cover Wavelengths from 400 to 1700 nm
  • Rotating-Wave-Plate-Based Measurement Gives ±0.25° Accuracy
  • High Dynamic Range of 70 dB
  • Accepts Free-Space or Fiber-Coupled Input

Accessories for Fiber-Coupled Optical Input Included

PAX1000IR1

Application Idea

The orientation of a WPH05M-532 half-wave plate mounted in a CRM1P 30 mm cage rotation mount is adjusted with the aid of a PAX1000VIS polarimeter.

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Example Configurations (from Left to Right):

  • The measurement head accepts a free-space optical input beam up to Ø3 mm.
  • A collimator, adapter, and SM1-threaded lens tube are included for fiber-coupled optical input.
  • The PAX1000VIS(/M) includes an end cap with laser-etched cross hairs to aid in beam alignment.
  • The PAX1000IR1(/M) and PAX1000IR2(/M) include VRC2SM1 IR alignment disks with mounting adapters.
PAX1000 Series Software GUI
Click to Enlarge
Software GUI for the PAX1000 Series Polarimeter Showing Equally-Sized Polarization Ellipse and Poincaré Sphere Measurement Windows

Features

  • Three Wavelength Ranges Available
    • 400 nm - 700 nm
    • 600 nm - 1080 nm
    • 900 nm - 1700 nm
  • Rotating-Wave-Plate-Based Measurement
  • High Dynamic Range of 70 dB
  • Excellent Azimuth and Ellipticity Accuracy of ±0.25°
  • Sampling Rate up to 400 Samples/s
  • Beam Terminates Inside the Module
  • Ø3.0 mm Free-Space Beam Input or FC/PC Fiber Input 
  • Fully Featured Software Includes Alignment Tool and Extinction Ratio Measurement Tool

Applications

  • Free-Space and Fiber-Coupled Polarimetry
  • Degree of Polarization (DOP) Measurements
  • Extinction Ratio (ER) Measurements
  • Component for a Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) / Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) Measurement System

Thorlabs' PAX1000 Series of Polarimeters measure the state of polarization (SOP) of collimated input light using the rotating-wave-plate method. Three models cover the visible to near-infrared wavelength range. Optical input must be monochromatic coherent light (i.e. laser light), and the light terminates inside the module. These polarimeters have a high 70 dB dynamic range, and they provide azimuth and ellipticity accuracies of ±0.25° on the Poincaré sphere. When electrical power is supplied via the USB 2.0 port, measurements can be at rates between 50 and 100 samples/s. When the polarimeters are powered using the included DS15 power supply, they can achieve measurement rates between 50 and 400 samples/s. Software, available for download on the Software tab, enables measurements from up to five measurement heads to be simultaneously acquired. For more information, please see the Operation tab. 

The measurement head accepts a free-space collimated beam up to Ø3.0 mm. Input from an FC/PC-terminated optical fiber can be coupled to the module using the included wavelength-appropriate F240FC Series Fiber Collimator, SM1M10 Lens Tube with SM1 (1.035"-40) internal threads, and KAD12F SM1 threaded adapter. Free-space and fiber-coupled configurations are shown at the left and second left, respectively, in the above image. If you would rather receive a fiber collimator that accepts FC/APC connectors, please contact Tech Support. The F240APC series collimators for FC/APC connectors are also available separately. Accessories from Thorlabs' selection of 30 mm Cage System components can be attached using the four 4-40 threaded holes located on the front panel. 

Software
The software for these polarimeters includes an intuitive GUI that provides multiple ways visualize the measurement data: measurements can be plotted on a polarization ellipse, the Poincaré sphere, and/or a graph, as well as displayed in tabulated format. The GUI also features an easy-to-use alignment tool to help the user optimally align the input beam, which is critical for ensuring accurate measurements. In addition, for those interested in measuring the polarization-maintaining (PM) performance of a PM optical fiber, the software includes an extinction ratio tool with the option to correct this measurement for absolute ellipticity and degree of polarization. 

Measurements from up to five different sources, which include physical polarimeters, virtual devices, and saved data loaded from files, can be displayed simultaneously. The software provides control over sample rates and data averaging preferences. Long-term measurements are also supported. These measurements save a range of time-stamped data to a file according to the settings specified during the measurement setup. Long-term measurements can be acquired while using the software to acquire and manipulate measurements from other devices.

Specifications

Item # PAX1000VIS(/M) PAX1000IR1(/M) PAX1000IR2(/M)
Optical Parametersa
Wavelength Range 400 nm - 700 nm 600 nm - 1080 nm 900 nm - 1700 nm
Dynamic Range -60 dBm to +10 dBm
Sampling Rate Defaultb 30 Samples/s
Maximumc 400 Samples/s
Measurable SOPd Entire Poincaré Sphere
Azimuth Accuracye ±0.25°
Ellipticity Accuracy ±0.25°
DOPef Accuracy ±1.0%
Free Space Aperture Ø3 mm
Input Fiber Connector FC/PC Accepted by Included Ø12 mm Collimatorg
Included Ø12 mm Collimatorg F240FC-A F240FC-B F240FC-C
Maximum Input Beam Divergence
Warm-Up Time for Rated Accuracy 15 min
Additional Specifications
Command and Control Interface USB 2.0 Mini-B
Input Power Supply Via USB 2.0 Mini-B Interface or
DS15 External Power Supplyh
DS15 Power Supply Ratings 15.0 V; 1.2 A
Operating Temperature Range 5 °C to 40 °C
Storage Temperature Range -40 °C to 70 °C
Dimensions 51.0 mm x 55.0 mm x 56.3 mm
(2.01" x 2.17" 2.22")
Bottom Mounting Features One 1/4"-20 (M6) and Two 8-32 (M4) Threaded Holes
Weight 0.28 kg (0.62 lbs)
  • All polarization specifications are valid for optical powers from -40 dBm to +3 dBm.
  • Two samples per complete turn of the rotating quarter-wave plate are acquired and averaged. The motor drive speed is 60 Hz.
  • One sample per half turn of the rotating quarter-wave plate and 200 Hz motor drive speed. Operating at this rate requires the polarimeter be powered using the included DS15 external power supply.
  • SOP: States of Polarization
  • For any SOP with -30° < Ellipticity < 30°
  • DOP: Degree of Polarization
  • If you would rather recieve a fiber collimator that accepts FC/APC connectors, please contact Tech Support. The F240APC series collimators for FC/APC connectors are also available separately.
  • Power supplied via the USB port enables operation between 50 and 100 Samples/s. Use the included DS15 power supply to operate at higher rates.

Note: All technical specifications are valid at 23 ± 5 °C and 45 ± 15% non-condensing relative humidity.

Front Panel Features

PAX1000 Series Measurement Head Front Panel
Click to Enlarge
PAX1000IR1 Polarimeter Configured for Free-Space Optical Input
Front Panel of the PAX1000 Series Polarimeters
Callout Description
F1 4-40 Tapped Hole, 5.5 mm Max Screw Engagement Length (4 Places)
for Thorlabs' 30 mm Cage System Components
F2 SM1 (1.035"-40) External Thread
F3 SM05 (0.535"-40) Internal Thread
F4 Ø3 mm Optical Input Aperture

Back Panel Features

PAX1000 Series Measurement Head Back Panel
Click to Enlarge
Back Panel of PAX1000IR1 Polarimeter 
Back Panel of the PAX1000 Series Polarimeters
Callout Description
B1 Status LED "Ready"a
B2 USB Mini-B Connector for PC Control and Powerb
B3 Port for Mini-XLR Connector of Included External DS15 Power Supplyb
  • LED glows green when power is connected. It does not indicate whether warm-up period has concluded.
  • Power Supplied via the USB enables operation up to 50 Samples/s. Use the included DS15 power supply to operate at higher rates.

Operating Principle

Rotating Wave Plate Method
Click to Enlarge

Figure 1: Rotating Wave Plate Technique

The PAX1000 series polarimeters are based on the rotating quarter-wave plate technique. The input light must be monochromatic and coherent (i.e. laser emission) with a known wavelength. As shown in Figure 1, the input light is collimated and normally incident on a rotating true zero-order quarter-wave plate. After the wave plate, the light passes through a fixed linear polarizer and then terminates on a photodiode.

The polarization state of the light output by the quarter-wave plate changes as the wave plate rotates. The polarizer transmits only the component of light polarized along its transmission axis. As the rotating wave plate results in a continuously changing polarization state incident on the polarizer, the amplitude of the light transmitted by the polarizer, and incident on the photodiode, is modulated. The photodiode converts the modulated optical intensity to a modulated photocurrent. This setup produces photocurrent that has a DC term, a term proportional to twice the rotation frequency of the wave plate, and a phase-shifted term proportional to four times the rotation frequency of the waveplate. Fourier analysis is used to find the amplitude coefficients of each of these frequency-dependent terms, and then the Stokes parameters are calculated from those coefficients.

True Zero-Order Quarter-Wave Plate
A wave plate is a birefringent optical element through which light polarized along the fast axis travels at a faster velocity than light polarized along the orthogonal slow axis. The thickness of a quarter-wave plate transforms linearly polarized light to elliptically polarized light, and vice versa, by creating a phase delay of 90°, plus some integer multiple of 360°, between the two orthogonal polarization components.

Thorlabs uses true zero-order quarter-wave plates in the PAX1000 series polarimeters, as the highly accurate measurements of these polarimeters cannot be achieved with other types of quarter-wave plates. True zero-order wave plates possess the minimum thickness necessary to produce a phase difference of exactly 90°. Key characteristics of true zero order wave plates include high retardance accuracies, low temperature dependence, low wavelength dependence, and lower sensitivity to angle of incidence than other wave plates. Wave plates with greater thicknesses, but which are constructed to share some performance characteristics with true zero order wave plates, are more common. Examples are pseudo-zero-order and achromatic wave plates, which are constructed by cementing two different wave plates into a single assembly. The fabrication process of the pseudo-zero order and achromatic plates results in a small misalignment error between the component plates' fast and slow axes, which causes unacceptably large errors in the polarization measurements made using the rotating wave plate technique.

The wavelength dependency of the true zero-order wave plates used in the PAX1000 series polarimeters determines the operating range of each model. 

Pulsed vs. CW Input Light
While the PAX1000 series polarimeters assume the incident light beam is unmodulated, input light with pulse repetition rates >1 kHz will also yield accurate measurements. This is due to the limited bandwidth of the photodiode. Pulsed light with a high repetition rate is effectively integrated by the photodiode during the detection process, which results in the generation of a continuous wave (CW) photocurrent. When the pulse repetition rate of the input light is <1 kHz, the photodiode's bandwidth is sufficient to resolve the individual pulses. For these lower pulse rates, the modulation due to the pulsed nature of the light is not accounted for during the data analysis. The unexpected term in the measurement data related to the laser pulses may result in errors in the calculated polarization state.

Using the Included Accessories to Enable Fiber-Coupled Input
To enable the PAX1000 to accept fiber-based input, screw the SM1M10 lens tube onto the external SM1 threads on the front panel of the module. Insert the F240FC series fiber collimator into the KAD12F adapter, and tighten the set screws to hold the fiber collimator securely. Screw this assembly into the open end of the SM1M10 lens tube. With the assistance of the Alignment Tool in the software, which is described below and in the manual, optimize the alignment of the fiber collimator using a 5/64" (2.0 mm) hex key to rotate the pitch and yaw adjustment screws on the adapter. If you would rather receive a collimator that accepts FC/APC connectors with your PAX1000 series polarimeter, please contact Tech Support. The F240APC series collimators for FC/APC connectors are also available separately.

Polarization Measurements using the Software GUI

Software with an intuitive and graphical user interface (GUI) with multiple user-configurable attributes is available for the PAX1000 Series of polarimeters. Please note that this software is not backwards compatible with previous generations of Thorlabs' polarimeters.

State of Polarization
The convention the software, manual, and quick start guide use to describe the polarization state assumes the (virtual) observer looks into the beam, towards the light source.

Sample Rates
Sample Rates depend on both the rotation rate of the quarter-wave plate and the number of rotations over which the data are acquired. Each half-turn of the waveplate acquires a full period of data, which is sufficient for determining the state of polarization. Acquiring data over multiple half-turns of the waveplate can improve measurement accuracy and noise levels, as the output of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) data processing step often improves as the number of periods included in the input data set increases. When the optical signal power is low or significant noise is present on the signal, measurement data quality is improved by reducing Basic Sample Rate, which reduces the rotation rate of the quarter-wave plate, and acquiring data over multiple half-turns.

The software provides the option of selecting whether polarization measurements are calculated using data acquired during one half, one full, or two full rotations of the quarter-wave plate. As the quarter-wave plate is driven at revolution rates between 25 Hz and 200 Hz by a low-vibration DC motor, the associated Sample Rates are: 

  • 50 Hz to 400 Hz (Half Rotation)
  • 25 Hz to 100 Hz (Full Rotation)
  • 12.5 Hz to 50 Hz (Two Full Rotation)

Please see the Chapter 5 of the manual for detailed information describing the sampling rate settings.

PAX1000 Series Polarimeter Alignment Tool
Click to Enlarge

Figure 3: Optimized Alignment
PAX1000 Series Polarimeter Alignment Tool
Click to Enlarge

Figure 2: Alignment Reading Indicating
Optimization is Required

Alignment Tool
Correct alignment of the input beam is crucial for accurate measurements. The beam is optimally aligned when it is normally incident on the rotating wave plate and centered in the input aperture. Centering the beam becomes more important as the beam diameter approaches the 3.0 mm diameter of the input aperture. Off-center beams, as well as beams that are not normally incident on the wave plate, scatter from surfaces inside the polarimeter and contribute unwanted components to the optical signal incident on the photodiode. The resulting artifacts in the photocurrent produce errors in the polarization measurement. Poorly centered beams may also be clipped by the input aperture.

To assist with the alignment process, Thorlabs has developed an alignment tool. The alignment tool can be opened through the TOOLS tab on the toolbar, which is described in the following section. As shown in Figure 2, the tool consists of a scale with red and green regions. The indicator needle on the scale, and the numerical value readout to the left of the scale, shows the fraction of desired components in the photocurrent. In Figure 2, the indicator needle is in the red region, which corresponds to an unacceptably poor alignment. Improving alignment reduces contributions from scattered light, which increases the fraction of desired components in the photocurrent. The size of the green range is set using the Acceptable Alignment control to the left of the scale. As a rule, good alignment is achieved when the alignment is better than 98%. However, the alignment should be optimized as much as possible, as it is in Figure 3. 

PAX1000 Series Polarimeter Software Poincare Sphere
Click to Enlarge

Figure 5: Measurements from up to five sources,
including physical and virtual devices as well as
data saved to a file, can be plotted to this view.
PAX1000 Series Polarimeter Software Main Screen
Click to Enlarge

Figure 4: Main Screen of the GUI with the Poincaré Sphere 
and Polarization Ellipse Views Active and Equally Sized

Key Features of the Display
The GUI, whose main screen is shown in Figure 4, consists of several elements. Related functions are grouped under the different tabs of the toolbar, visible at the top left of the screen in Figure 4. In the example shown, the toolbar tab labeled DEVICE is selected, under which Scan USB, Add Virtual Device, Devices & Measurements, Device Settings, Reset All and Pause/Run functions are organized.

Data are displayed in the large area below the toolbar section. Measurement display windows of interest can be added to this region using the VIEW tab in the toolbar. These different views can then be organized, and their sizes and other appearance attributes modified, by the user. The example in Figure 4 shows the Polarization Ellipse and the Poincaré Sphere Views active and sized equally. The views that may be enabled are:

  • Polarization Ellipse
  • Poincaré Sphere
  • Scope Mode
  • Extinction Ratio Measurement
  • Long Term Measurement
  • Measurement Value Table

A Status Bar, located at the bottom of the page, indicates error events and communicates information about long term measurement progress, including an actively-updated progress bar.

Multiple Active Devices
The software for the PAX1000 series allows measurements from up to five of any combination of physical devices, virtual devices, and saved files to be simultaneously displayed. Figure 5 shows measurement data plotted on the Poincaré sphere from four different sources: two physical devices (red and blue labels), one virtual device (green label), and one measurement loaded from a file (fuchsia label). Connecting a virtual device allows the measurement functionality of the software to be explored in the absence of a physical device. The virtual device is based on the default settings of the PAX1000IR1.

Polarization Ellipse View
The Polarization Ellipse View, which can be seen on left side of Figure 4, shows the polarization ellipse calculated for the measured polarization state inscribed in a circle. A pull-down menu is used to select which active device to use as the source of the displayed data. A box in the lower left corner displays measurement parameters. In addition to the four parameters shown by default (orientation of the polarization state, wavelength, total power, and degree of polarization), the user may choose to additional parameters to display (azimuth and ellipticity, or power split ratio and phase difference, or the three normalized Stokes vectors). 

Poincaré Sphere View
The Poincaré Sphere View is shown on the right side of Figure 4 and in Figure 5. Measurements from up to five sources, a combination of physical, virtual, and data loaded from a file, can be simultaneously plotted to this view. Reference markers can be placed on the sphere, either using the mouse for approximate placement or a menu function to precisely define the reference state. Other menu functions allow the appearance, maximum length, and other attributes of each trace to be defined. The orientation of and zoom factor applied to the sphere can be specified using a separate menu function. This customized appearance can be saved, so that it can be recalled later. The orientation of the sphere can also be controlled using keyboard commands or the mouse, and the sphere can be rotated to bring the most current measurement of a particular device to the front by clicking on the box at the bottom of the view that corresponds to the device. As memory limitations can result in decreased responsiveness of the GUI when large amounts of data are plotted, a total of 50,000 measurement points can be shown on the Poincaré sphere. As this total number of data points is divided among the different traces plotted on the sphere, the maximum length of each trace depends on the number of displayed traces. 

PAX1000 Series Polarimeter Software Scope Mode
Click to Enlarge

Figure 7: Four different graphs can be selected in Scope
Mode. To activate a graph of interest, click the corresponding
circled arrow located at the very left of the row.
PAX1000 Series Polarimeter Software Scope Mode
Click to Enlarge

Figure 6: Scope Mode View of the Normalized Stokes 
Parameters

Scope Mode View
In the Scope Mode View, the 1000 most recently measured data points for a selected set of polarization parameters are shown plotted to a graph, which is continuously updated as values are acquired. Data logging begins as soon as a device is connected, and it can be restarted by clicking the Clear Data button. Figure 6 shows a graph of the normalized Stokes parameters computed from a measurement file loaded from memory. The source of the data is specified using the drop-down menu and is one of the active physical devices, virtual devices, or loaded measurement files. Different graphs can be selected using the Scope Mode function accessed through the VIEW tab in the toolbar, as shown in Figure 7. Parameters that can be graphed are:

  • Normalized Stokes Parameters: s1, s2, and s3
  • Polarization Ellipse Parameters: Azimuth and Ellipticity
  • Degree of Polarization
  • Power
PAX1000 Series Polarimeter Extinction Ratio Tool
Click to Enlarge

Figure 9: ER Measurement Results
PAX1000 Series Polarimeter Extinction Ratio Tool
Click to Enlarge

Figure 8: The ER Measurement view. The minimized
Polarization Ellipse and Poincaré Sphere views can
be expanded by clicking on the gray tabs at the 
left of the screen.

Extinction Ratio Measurement View
The Extinction Ratio Measurement tool is useful in determining the extinction ratio (ER) of polarization maintaining (PM) optical fibers. To make an ER measurement, linearly polarized light with a degree of polarization as close to 100% as possible must be precisely coupled into either the fast or the slow axis of the PM fiber. The ER measurement is made while dynamically stressing the fiber under test. Two common ways of stressing the fiber are by heating it and through mechanical means, such as applying a tensile force.

The applied stress causes cross coupling of the light between the fast and slow axes of the PM fiber, and this changes the measured polarization state. During the application of a dynamic stress to the fiber, the measured polarization state continuously changes and a circle is traced on the Poincaré sphere, as shown in both Figure 8 and Figure 9. The circle should be centered near the equator of the sphere, as the light should be predominantly linearly polarized. Each measurement point represents an (azimuth, ellipticity) measurement pair. The calculation of ER requires the complete measurement set to trace at least one full circle on the Poincaré sphere. The diameter of the circle is a measure of the ER, and the smaller the circle, the higher the ER.

Please note that ER measurements made by a polarimeter are not affected by the degree of polarization (DOP) of light. This is in contrast to measurements made by an ER meter, such as Thorlabs' ERM100. When the ER measurements made by the polarimeter are corrected for absolute ellipticity and degree of polarization, as described in Section 8.4 of the manual, the ER value measured by the polarimeter and the ER meter agree. The software for the PAX1000 series of polarimeters allows the user to correct the ER measurement result for absolute ellipticity, DOP, or both. This preference is specified in the ER Measurement setup screen shown in Figure 8. The results of a completed ER measurement are shown in Figure 9. 

Long-Term Measurement
Long-Term measurements are set up using the function grouped under the TOOLS tab in the toolbar. An extensive array of parameters, which are listed in Section 5.2.5 of the manual are recorded to file with the exact time stamp and elapsed time of the measurement. Measurement settings include file information, sampling frequency, and measurement stop criteria. Long-term measurements can be acquired while also using the software with other connected devices.

PAX1000 Software
Click to Enlarge

The PAX1000 Series Polarimeter GUI Interface

GUI and Drivers for the Remote Control of PAX1000 Series Polarimeters

The download button below provides a link to the GUI and drivers that allow these polarimeters to be controlled via a PC with a Windows® operating system. The highly customizable GUI configuration of this software can be used to display measurements graphically on a polarization ellipse, a Poincaré sphere, and/or on an X-Y graph. An alignment tool is provided to optimize the beam path prior to measurement, long-term measurements are supported, and an extinction ratio (ER) tool facilitates ER measurements of polarization maintaining fibers. Measurements from up to five sources can be simultaneously displayed. These sources include physical and virtual devices displaying real-time data as well as measurements read from a file. A USB 2.0 connection is used to connect the controlling PC to the polarimeter.

Software

Version 1.0.1415
This is a software package with a GUI and drivers for Thorlabs' PAX1000 Series polarimeters.

Software Download

PAX1000VIS(/M)

  • Polarimeter, Wavelength Range 400 nm to 700 nm
  • F240FC-A Fiber Collimator (Designed for FC/PC Connectors)*
  • KAD12F SM1-Threaded Adapter for Ø12 mm Cylindrical Components
  • SM1M10 SM1-Threaded Lens Tube
  • End Cap Laser-Engraved with Cross-Hair
  • USB 2.0 Cable, 1.5 m Long, with Mini-B and A-Type Connectors
  • DS15 ±15 VDC Regulated Power Supply
  • Quick Reference Manual

*If you would like to instead receive a fiber collimator compatible with FC/APC connectors, please contact Tech Support. The F240APC series collimators for FC/APC connectors are also available separately.

PAX1000VIS Polarimeter Included Components
Click to Enlarge
Components included with the PAX1000VIS(/M) polarimeters are shown above. 

 


PAX1000IR1(/M)

  • Polarimeter, Wavelength Range 600 nm to 1080 nm
  • F240FC-B Fiber Collimator (Designed for FC/PC Connectors)*
  • KAD12F SM1-Threaded Adapter for Ø12 mm Cylindrical Components
  • SM1M10 SM1-Threaded Lens Tube
  • VRC2SM1 Alignment Disk, with External SM1 Threads
  • Mounting Adapter for mating the VRC2SM1 to the External SM1 Threads on the Front Panel of the PAX1000IR1(/M) Module 
  • USB 2.0 Cable, 1.5 m Long, with Mini-B and A-Type Connectors
  • DS15 ±15 VDC Regulated Power Supply
  • Quick Reference Manual
PAX1000IR Polarimeter Included Components
Click to Enlarge
Components included with the PAX1000IR1(/M) and PAX1000IR2(/M) polarimeters are shown above.

PAX1000IR2(/M)

  • Polarimeter, Wavelength Range 900 nm to 1700 nm
  • F240FC-C Fiber Collimator (Designed for FC/PC Connectors)*
  • KAD12F SM1-Threaded Adapter for Ø12 mm Cylindrical Components
  • SM1M10 SM1-Threaded Lens Tube
  • VRC2SM1 Alignment Disk, with External SM1 Threads
  • Mounting Adapter for mating the VRC2SM1 to the External SM1 Threads on the Front Panel of the PAX1000IR2(/M) Module
  • USB 2.0 Cable, 1.5 m Long, with Mini-B and A-Type Connectors
  • DS15 ±15 VDC Regulated Power Supply
  • Quick Reference Manual

*If you would like to instead receive a fiber collimator compatible with FC/APC connectors, please contact Tech Support. The F240APC series collimators for FC/APC connectors are also available separately.
The mounting adapter consists of internal SM1 threads on both sides of a solid disk. It functions as both an adapter and a light-tight end cap, as the VRC2SM1 is not opaque.


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Posted Comments:
Poster:vaclav.michalek
Posted Date:2017-10-04 12:46:58.613
Would be, please, available the list of direct USBTMC commands for the PAX1000 to work when writing a program for non-Windows or old OS ?
Poster:wskopalik
Posted Date:2017-10-05 04:53:40.0
This is a response from Wolfgang at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. It is generally possible to control the PAX1000 polarimeters with SCPI commands. I have contacted you directly to provide further details.
Poster:
Posted Date:2017-07-13 22:41:42.36
One of the Spec notes specifies that All polarization specifications are valid for power range from -40 dBm to +3 dBm. Does this mean the measurement at the some part of the dynamic range (-60 dBm to +10 dBm) is not valid?
Poster:wskopalik
Posted Date:2017-07-17 06:53:40.0
This is a response from Wolfgang at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your feedback. This note means that the specified accuracies are only valid for optical powers from -40 dBm to +3 dBm. Outside of this range you will still get measurement values, however their accuracy can be worse. For powers below -40 dBm the noise in the amplification electronics will decrease the accuracy. For powers larger than +3 dBm non-linear effects in the photodiode and the amplifier electronics will cause a decrease in accuracy as well. I have contacted you directly to provide further assistance.
Poster:andrew.j.booth
Posted Date:2017-04-12 15:05:14.747
We have a PAN5710IR3 whose cable got damaged. Can we buy a replacement cable and if so what is the part number? Thanks
Poster:wskopalik
Posted Date:2017-04-13 04:11:17.0
This is a response from Wolfgang at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. Yes, we can provide replacement cables as a special item. We will contact you directly for further details.
Poster:cmlong
Posted Date:2017-03-07 16:19:26.063
I'm having trouble with my PAX polarimeter in that it won't give consistent power readings. For example, whenever the beam is blocked (by my sample fixture), the power goes to zero. When I move the barrier out of the way, the polarimetry data returns but the power level is off by about -6dB. I have to move the sample completely out of the way to get the polarimeter to recalibrate itself. Any thoughts? Thanks!
Poster:swick
Posted Date:2017-03-13 04:25:02.0
This is a response from Sebastian at Thorlabs. Thank you for the feedback. I have contacted you directly for troubleshooting and assistance.
Poster:wckuo
Posted Date:2016-06-01 15:07:11.997
Dear Sir/Madam, the prices that are stated on your site are including a dedicated laptop. What is the cost of a PAX5710IR2-T system, without such a laptop?
Poster:shallwig
Posted Date:2016-06-01 10:26:30.0
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you for your inquiry, I have contacted you directly to provide you with price information for this special.
Poster:karol.686
Posted Date:2016-04-29 19:59:05.937
The fiber P1-488PM-FC-2 - Patch Cable, FC/PC, 488 nm, PM You can concetar directly to the sensor polarimeter ?
Poster:shallwig
Posted Date:2016-05-02 09:10:56.0
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you for your inquiry. The external measurement heads of our PAX5710 series polarimeters can be used for free-space beams as well as for fiber-coupled measurements. A removable collimation package for a fiber connector input comes with each sensor head. On the website in the “Overview” Tab the different configurations are shown. I will contact you directly to discuss your application in more detail.
Poster:
Posted Date:2016-04-25 17:16:35.487
Dear Sir/Madam, the prices that are stated on your site are including a dedicated laptop. What is the cost of a PAX5710VIS-T system, without such a laptop?
Poster:shallwig
Posted Date:2016-04-25 11:32:07.0
This is response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you for your inquiry. As you left no contact information could you please contact me at europe@thorlabs.com to provide you more information about the PAX system without Laptop.
Poster:qcl.sydney
Posted Date:2016-03-02 09:18:53.357
We have 626 nm light that goes from a PM fiber to a doubling stage and the 313 nm light ought to go into another PM fiber. It would be great if we could use the PAX for both. The stated range goes to 400 nm, but I assume it's not a sharp cutoff. How far down could you in principle use the polarimeter?
Poster:shallwig
Posted Date:2016-03-02 10:38:00.0
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. Unfortunately the PAX will not work at 313nm, the unit is calibrated at the specified wavelength range (400-700nm). There are several critical points, the polarizer has an AR coating which is not made for this wavelength therefore losses will increase. The retardance of the built in quarter waveplate will be also different at this wavelength. As there was no calibration done at this wavelength, it is also not possible to select the wavelength in the software. At 313nm you are too far away to get reliable results. We are currently working on the development of a new PAX system which would also allow measurements in the UV. I will contact you directly to check your needs in more detail.
Poster:
Posted Date:2015-12-08 07:55:49.173
Is there any estimation for the sensitivity of the polarimeter for each head? In the specs it only appears -60 to 10 dBm, but I would need to know the sensitivity for my head (PAX5710IR1-T 700-1000 nm). Thank you.
Poster:shallwig
Posted Date:2015-12-08 08:15:36.0
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. The built in measurement sensor in general can measure from -60 to 10 dBm, this range is valid for all measurement heads (VIS, IR1,IR2,IR3) . It has 5 gain settings and the corresponding power range depends on the wavelength selected. The maximum power setting for each range (at the selected wavelength) gets displayed. The recommended and default setting of the power range is 'auto', whereby the optimum power range will be set automatically. Unfortunately you left no Email address. Please contact me at europe@thorlabs.com to discuss your application in more detail.
Poster:Shitano
Posted Date:2015-12-02 06:30:55.383
I would like to get the Mueller matrix of an optical device using the PAX. In the manual, this can be read: "The 16 real-valued elements mij (i,j = 0,1,2,3) that build the Mueller matrix of an optical component can be determined by measuring the 4 different Stokes vectors that enter and leave the component. For each of the 4 different polarizations, measured by a polarimeter with and without device under test. The Mueller matrix can then be calculated out of the 8 determined Stokes vectors." But it doesn't say how to do this: how to calculate the Mueller matrix from the 8 Stokes vectors. How can I do this? Thank you.
Poster:shallwig
Posted Date:2015-12-03 09:13:52.0
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. In the Mueller calculus , the Stokes vector S is used to describe the polarization state of a light beam , and the Mueller matrix M to describe the polarization-altering characteristics of a sample . The Mueller matrix M for a polarization-altering device is defined as the matrix which transforms an incident Stokes vector S into the exiting (reflected , transmitted , or scattered) Stokes vector S‘. From a set of polarimetric measurements , you can develop a set of linear equations which can be solved for certain of the Mueller matrix elements . Since the Mueller matrix is a function of wavelength , angle of incidence , and location on the sample , these are assumed fixed in this simplification. A polarization generator prepares a set of polarization states with a sequence of Stokes vectors Sq . The Stokes vectors exiting the sample are MSq . These exiting states are analyzed by the qth polarization state analyzer Aq , yielding the measured flux Pq Each measured flux is assumed to be a linear function of the sample’s Mueller matrix elements. For sharing more detailed calculations I would like to contact you directly. Unfortunately you left no Email address. Please contact me at europe@thorlabs.com to discuss this in more detail. Since the Mueller matrix is a function of wavelength , angle of incidence , and location on the sample , these are assumed fixed in this simplification. A polarization generator prepares a set of polarization states with a sequence of Stokes vectors Sq . The Stokes vectors exiting the sample are MSq . These exiting states are analyzed by the qth polarization state analyzer Aq , yielding the measured flux Pq. Each measured flux is assumed to be a linear function of the sample’s Mueller matrix elements. For sharing more detailed calculations I would like to contact you directly. Unfortunately you left no Email address. Please contact me at europe@thorlabs.com to discuss this in more detail.
Poster:al12179
Posted Date:2015-10-19 13:50:10.767
I would like to know what point of view the polarimeter is giving me the measurements from. I have two measurements, each of one from a different source: M1=Horizontal and M2=+45º, and I want to know the relative angle of M2 relative to M1. If the polarimeter is giving me the measurement directly from the point of view of the source, the relative angle of M2 relative to M1 would be directly -45º. However, if the polarimeter is giving me the measurement from the point of view of the polarimeter, then I would have to make the transformation to view it the 45º angle from the point of view of the source: the H polarization would be the same viewed from any point of view, but a +45º from the point of view of the polarimeter would actually be a -45º from the point of view of the source. Then the relative angle of M2 relative to M1, after making the transformation, would be +45º. Thank you.
Poster:tschalk
Posted Date:2015-10-20 08:12:24.0
This is a response from Thomas at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. The polarimeter gives you the measurement directly from the point of view of the polarimeter. You can set an azimuth offset in the software to transform the point of view. This means that you have to set the azimuth offset to 180° to get the point of view of the light source. I will also contact you directly for any further questions.
Poster:sowmyadanta94
Posted Date:2015-07-01 05:13:38.41
Hello Thorlabs, The product is extremely helpful. However I need some help regarding that. I'm trying to use two slots of the polarimeter at the same time. When I connect it to my laptop, only one slot is being recognised. I have tried setting no. of slots as 2 in setup wizard but still my system is recognising only one slot. So kindly suggest me on how to use two slots at the same time.
Poster:shallwig
Posted Date:2015-07-02 04:03:20.0
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. With the current software it is unfortunately not possible to control more than one card from the same software instance. But you can open several instances of the GUI and select different cards to control them at the same time. I have contacted you directly for discussing your application in detail.
Poster:thomas.piok
Posted Date:2015-05-20 08:55:22.51
Is it possible to check the error of the instrument e.g. are reference targets, filters ect. available? We run three instruments and whant to check the accuracy - and if it is out of range send it to service.
Poster:shallwig
Posted Date:2015-05-21 10:00:52.0
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. You can check if your devices work within the specifications by using a polarizer in a rotation mount in front of the Polarimeter. By rotating the polarizer you can check if the values given out by the PAX correspond to the set angle at the rotation mount. For example for 0° incoming angle the azimuth of the PAX should be 0°+/-0.25° and the degree of polarization 100%. For 10° the azimuth should be 10°+-0,25°, the DOP remains at 100%+/-0,5%. This way up to 180° you can check the accuracy of your PAX systems. This is basically the measurement principle also used in our calibration setup. For highest precision of the measurement we recommend to recalibrate the PAX every two years. I will contact you directly to discuss your inquiry in more detail.
Poster:fathi.khaled
Posted Date:2014-08-26 14:38:20.817
Hi, Do you possess an ultra fast Polarimeter ( around 1Mhz). Thanks, Fethi
Poster:shallwig
Posted Date:2014-08-27 08:05:14.0
This is a response from Stefan at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. We offer in-Line fiber coupled Polarimeter which we specify with a sampling rate of 1 Million Samples per second. You can find these devices with the part number IPM5300 under the following link: http://www.thorlabs.de/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=929&pn=IPM5300 I will contact you directly to discuss if these Polarimeter are suitable for your application.
Poster:roei.yiftah
Posted Date:2013-02-11 05:28:59.317
i am working with 5004 series polarimeter do i need to calibrate the polarimeter? if so how can i do it
Poster:tschalk
Posted Date:2013-02-12 02:48:00.0
This is a response from Thomas at Thorlabs. Thank you very much for your inquiry. In normal operation the PAX57xx card does not need any service. For highest precision of the measurement it is recommended to recalibrate the PAX57xx every two years. You can see the due date of calibration in the card info-menu of the card driver to determine the recalibration date. If you want to recalibrate your polarimeter you should contact the technical support of Thorlabs and they will arrange a RMA (return merchandise authorization) for you.
Poster:jvigroux
Posted Date:2012-11-16 12:57:00.0
A response form Thomas at Thorlabs: The error message "eigenmodes are not strictly linear" appears when the center of the circle is too far away from the equator on the Poincare sphere. This can have several origin, ranging from a poor coupling into the fiber to the fact that the fiber contains any element that transforms the polarization (for instance a piece of non PM fiber). In some cases, some stress can occur in the connector that leads ot a transformation of the SOP within the distance that is stressed. I will contact you directly to help finding out what the origin of this effect can be in your case.
Poster:knottenbelt
Posted Date:2012-11-15 15:43:36.113
Dear Sir/Madam, I am inquiring about an error message. Can you please tell me the meaning when a error message states" eigenmodes are not strictly linear". Second when an error message appears the values are in yellow. How accurate are they? as compared to green values? Thank you
Poster:jvigroux
Posted Date:2012-04-12 15:07:00.0
A response form Julien at Thorlabs: Dear Bruno, thank you for your request. It is indeed possible to connect several polarimeter measurement heads to the same polarimeter mainframe. The polarimeter system consists of three different parts: the mainframe (TXP5004), the readout card and the measurement head. Each measurement head needs to be connected to a readout card. The readout card being the same for all wavelengths range, one can simply connect a head having a different wavelength range to the same card. If two or more polarimeters are to be used simultaneously, one will need as many cards as there are measurement heads. The TXP5004 can fit up to four cards. Should you have any furtehr question, please do not hesitate to contact us at techsupport@thorlabs.com
Poster:
Posted Date:2012-04-12 15:18:03.0
Dear Sir/Madam, I have an additional question, regarding the possibility of using multiple sensor heads with one PAX5710-T polarimeter. The image seems to suggest that it is possible to attach mutltiple sensor heads to one polarimeter; is this indeed the case? Sincerely, Bruno van Albada
Poster:jvigroux
Posted Date:2012-02-28 13:15:00.0
A response from Julien at Thorlabs: Dear Bruno, thank you for your inquiry! the Stokes parameters are cosine and sine functions of the azymuth and of the ellipticity. This means that the absolute accuracy that is specified for those two angles does not translate linearly to an accuracy for the stokes vector. Rather the measurement error on the Stokes vector will vary with the actual angles measured. As an example, S3 depends only on the ellipticity E and can be written as S3=pIsin(2E) where p is the degree of polarization and I is the intensity. For a real ellipticity of 1°, the measured ellipticity will lie within the interval [0.75°;1.25°]. When one uses the above formula to calculate back S3 for the upper and lower boundaries of this interval, one finds that the error on S3 can be as high as 20%. If the ellipticity is however close to 45°, the error on S3 will be much smaller than 0.1%. The same type of effect will influence the measurement accuracy of S1 and S2. I would be happy to further discuss your application and its requirements in order to estimate to which extent the non linear dependence of the Stokes parameters on the polarization angles can have an influence on your measurement results. Please feel free to contact us at techsupport@thorlabs.com
Poster:
Posted Date:2012-02-28 07:03:40.0
Dear Sir/Madam, I have a question regarding the accuracy of the polarimeters. This is now stated in terms of degrees on the poincare sphere; could you please tell me what this means in terms of the Stokes parameters(in percentages, if at all possible?) Sincerely, Bruno van Albada
Poster:bdada
Posted Date:2011-04-26 12:50:00.0
Response from Buki at Thorlabs: Thank you for your feedback. Unfortunately, we have not been able to track your email. We have contacted you directly to ask you to resend the quote to TechSupport@thorlabs.com so we can prepare a quote a for you. We usually respond to inquiries within 24 hrs.
Poster:siyu.wang
Posted Date:2011-04-26 04:34:52.0
Hello, This is Sanmina-SCI optical technology Shenzhen Ltd. I sent an email to Thorlabs for one calibration quotation for our PAX system on April 22.But I do not get any respond till to today.
Poster:jhartmann
Posted Date:2011-02-17 13:16:57.0
The limitation of max of 1024 datapoints is given for the scope mode of PAXs graphic user interface and the reason for it is the internal memory size of the polarimeters DSP. This enables to record each acquired data point, even at the highest sampling rate. The downside is the limited memory size. With the current hardware design the memory cannot be extended. However, we have noticed this feature is required and will consider that for future product design.
Poster:carkajou.element
Posted Date:2011-01-06 10:23:10.0
I, we bought a new Polarimeters "PAX5710IRR3" with the remote head "PAN5710IR3". We are very desapointed to find in the manuel named "Polarization Analysing System PAX5710/5720 VIS/IR1/IR2/IR3" AT PAGE 39, point 5: Number of measurments-specifies the length of the record wich will be collected. The maximum number is 1024. We have 4 old models of polarimeters "PA480" with no limit of points for the aquisition mode. This is very frustrating for us, because 10 000$ of investment is useless. We need 10000 points or more of aquisition for the production line. What is the cause of the limitation: electronics, software??? My telephone number is the (888) 255-9303 ext 4266
Poster:Greg
Posted Date:2009-02-02 08:37:18.0
A response from Greg at Thorlabs to oguz.celikel: Thank you for your interest in Thorlabs products. One of our Applications Engineers will be in contact with you shortly.
Poster:oguz.celikel
Posted Date:2009-02-02 03:26:33.0
Dear Sales Responsible of Thorlabs, I need a Fiber Optic Polarimeter operating on (1300 +/- 20 ) nm and (1550 +/- 20) nm. The dynamic range is -60 dBm to 10 dBm is sufficient. As I see, PAX5720IR3-T is suitable. Please send me a formal quotation PAX5720IR3-T (TXP Polarimeter including PC with internal sensor 1350-1700 nm) with FC/PC connector compatible. Additionally, is it possible to extend the wavelentgh span of polarimeter by adding an external 1000-1350 nm sensor module into PAX5720IR3-T? and is it compatible with PAX5720IR3-T including PC software etc.? If it is so, please order a separate quotation for this additional module and send me urgently. Dr. Oguz CELIKEL BS&MS Phy. Eng. / Researcher Fiber Optic Metrology Division of National Metrology Institute of TURKEY TUBITAK UME Address : MAM Kampusu PO Box: 54 41470 Gebze - Kocaeli E-mail : oguz.celikel@ume.tubitak.gov.tr Tel : +90 262 679 50 00 (3354) lab. (3302) office

Polarimeters

PAX1000 Series Measurement Head Back Panel
Click to Enlarge
The DS15 power supply and mini-B USB ports are located on the back panel. The "READY" LED illuminates when power is connected. 
  • Three Models Available
    • PAX1000VIS(/M): 400 - 700 nm
    • PAX1000IR1(/M): 600 - 1080 nm
    • PAX1000IR2(/M): 900 - 1700 nm
  • Accessories Convert between Free-Space and Fiber-Coupled Optical Input
  • Maximum Measurement Rates:
    • 50 Samples/s when Powered by USB 2.0 
    • 400 Samples/s when Powered by Included DS15 Power Supply
  • Intuitive Software with User-Configurable Display and Measurement Settings
  • One 1/4"-20 (M6) and Two 8-32 (M4) Tapped Holes for Post Mounting

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Imperial Price Available / Ships
PAX1000VIS Support Documentation
PAX1000VISPolarimeter, Free Space and Fiber Coupled, 400 - 700 nm, Imperial Threading
$5,390.00
Today
PAX1000IR1 Support Documentation
PAX1000IR1Polarimeter, Free Space and Fiber Coupled, 600 - 1080 nm, Imperial Threading
$5,390.00
Today
PAX1000IR2 Support Documentation
PAX1000IR2Polarimeter, Free Space and Fiber Coupled, 900 - 1700 nm, Imperial Threading
$5,390.00
Today
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Metric Price Available / Ships
PAX1000VIS/M Support Documentation
PAX1000VIS/MPolarimeter, Free Space and Fiber Coupled, 400 - 700 nm, Metric Threading
$5,390.00
Today
PAX1000IR1/M Support Documentation
PAX1000IR1/MPolarimeter, Free Space and Fiber Coupled, 600 - 1080 nm, Metric Threading
$5,390.00
3-5 Days
PAX1000IR2/M Support Documentation
PAX1000IR2/MPolarimeter, Free Space and Fiber Coupled, 900 - 1700 nm, Metric Threading
$5,390.00
Today

Replacement 15 VDC Regulated Power Supply


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Region-Specific Adapters for DS15
  • 15 VDC Regulated Power Supply
  • Mini-XLR Connector
  • Compatible with Our PAX1000 Series Polarimeters

The DS15 is a 15 V regulated power supply with a 1.53 m (60.24") long cable and a Mini-XLR connector. It is suitable for any Mini-XLR-compatible device that requires a 15 VDC output, and is directly compatible with our PAX1000 series polarimeters, sold above. A region-specific adapter plug is shipped with the DS15 power supply based on your location.

Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal Price Available / Ships
DS15 Support Documentation
DS1515 VDC, 1.2 A Regulated Power Supply with Mini-XLR Connector, 100/240 VAC
$45.00
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