- GaP, Si, InGaAs, Ge, and Dual Band (Si/InGaAs) Detectors Available
- Wavelength Ranges from 150 to 2600 nm
Thorlabs stocks a wide selection of discrete photodiodes (PD) in various active area sizes and packages. These include indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs), gallium phosphide (GaP), silicon (Si), and germanium (Ge) photodiodes. We also offer four photodiode packages with enhanced performance characteristics: DSD2, FD05D, FD10D, and FGAP71. The DSD2 is a dual band photodiode, which incorporates two photodetectors sandwiched on top of each other (Si substrate on top of an InGaAs substrate), offering a combined wavelength range of 400 to 1700 nm. The FD10D and FD05D are InGaAs photodiodes with high responsivity from 800 to 2600 nm, allowing detection of wavelengths beyond the normal 1800 nm range of typical InGaAs photodiodes. We also offer the FGAP71, a gallium phosphide (GaP) photodiode, which is useful for detection of UV light sources from 150 to 550 nm.
To complement our photodiode product line, we also offer a range of compatible mounts and accessories. Please note that the PDs sold below are not calibrated, and specifications may differ slightly from lot to lot. We also offer calibrated photodiodes, which come with with NIST-traceable calibration.
Inhomogeneity on the edge of an active area of the detector can generate unwanted capacitance and resistance that distorts the time-domain response of a photodiode. Thorlabs therefore recommends that the incident light on the photodiode is well centered on the active area. This can be accomplished by placing a focusing lens or pinhole in front of the detector element.
The responsivity of a particular photodiode varies from lot to lot. Due to this, the photodiode you receive may have a slightly different response than what is represented below. For example, to the right, a graph for the FDS1010 photodiode shows the extent that the response may vary. This data was collected from 104 photodiodes. Minimum, Average, and Maximum responsivity was calculated at each data point and has been plotted.
To view typical responsivity vs. wavelength data for each individual photodiode, please click the buttons in the product specifications tables below.
Theory of Operation
A junction photodiode is an intrinsic device that behaves similarly to an ordinary signal diode, but it generates a photocurrent when light is absorbed in the depleted region of the junction semiconductor. A photodiode is a fast, highly linear device that exhibits high quantum efficiency based upon the application and may be used in a variety of different applications.
It is necessary to be able to correctly determine the level of the output current to expect and the responsivity based upon the incident light. Depicted in Figure 1 is a junction photodiode model with basic discrete components to help visualize the main characteristics and gain a better understanding of the operation of Thorlabs' photodiodes.
Figure 1: Photodiode Model
The responsivity of a photodiode can be defined as a ratio of generated photocurrent (IPD) to the incident light power (P) at a given wavelength:
Modes of Operation (Photoconductive vs. Photovoltaic)
A photodiode can be operated in one of two modes: photoconductive (reverse bias) or photovoltaic (zero-bias). Mode selection depends upon the application's speed requirements and the amount of tolerable dark current (leakage current).
In photoconductive mode, an external reverse bias is applied, which is the basis for our DET series detectors. The current measured through the circuit indicates illumination of the device; the measured output current is linearly proportional to the input optical power. Applying a reverse bias increases the width of the depletion junction producing an increased responsivity with a decrease in junction capacitance and produces a very linear response. Operating under these conditions does tend to produce a larger dark current, but this can be limited based upon the photodiode material. (Note: Our DET detectors are reverse biased and cannot be operated under a forward bias.)
In photovoltaic mode the photodiode is zero biased. The flow of current out of the device is restricted and a voltage builds up. This mode of operation exploits the photovoltaic effect, which is the basis for solar cells. The amount of dark current is kept at a minimum when operating in photovoltaic mode.
Dark current is leakage current that flows when a bias voltage is applied to a photodiode. When operating in a photoconductive mode, there tends to be a higher dark current that varies directly with temperature. Dark current approximately doubles for every 10 °C increase in temperature, and shunt resistance tends to double for every 6 °C rise. Of course, applying a higher bias will decrease the junction capacitance but will increase the amount of dark current present.
The dark current present is also affected by the photodiode material and the size of the active area. Silicon devices generally produce low dark current compared to germanium devices which have high dark currents. The table below lists several photodiode materials and their relative dark currents, speeds, sensitivity, and costs.
|Material||Dark Current||Speed||Spectral Range||Cost|
||Visible to NIR
|Gallium Phosphide (GaP)
||UV to Visible
|Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs)
|Indium Arsenide Antimonide (InAsSb)
||NIR to MIR
|Extended Range Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs)
|Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT, HgCdTe)
||NIR to MIR
Junction capacitance (Cj) is an important property of a photodiode as this can have a profound impact on the photodiode's bandwidth and response. It should be noted that larger diode areas encompass a greater junction volume with increased charge capacity. In a reverse bias application, the depletion width of the junction is increased, thus effectively reducing the junction capacitance and increasing the response speed.
Bandwidth and Response
A load resistor will react with the photodetector junction capacitance to limit the bandwidth. For best frequency response, a 50 Ω terminator should be used in conjunction with a 50 Ω coaxial cable. The bandwidth (fBW) and the rise time response (tr) can be approximated using the junction capacitance (Cj) and the load resistance (RLOAD):
A load resistance is used to convert the generated photocurrent into a voltage (VOUT) for viewing on an oscilloscope:
Depending on the type of the photodiode, load resistance can affect the response speed. For maximum bandwidth, we recommend using a 50 Ω coaxial cable with a 50 Ω terminating resistor at the opposite end of the cable. This will minimize ringing by matching the cable with its characteristic impedance. If bandwidth is not important, you may increase the amount of voltage for a given light level by increasing RLOAD. In an unmatched termination, the length of the coaxial cable can have a profound impact on the response, so it is recommended to keep the cable as short as possible.
Shunt resistance represents the resistance of the zero-biased photodiode junction. An ideal photodiode will have an infinite shunt resistance, but actual values may range from the order of ten Ω to thousands of MΩ and is dependent on the photodiode material. For example, and InGaAs detector has a shunt resistance on the order of 10 MΩ while a Ge detector is in the kΩ range. This can significantly impact the noise current on the photodiode. For most applications, however, the high resistance produces little effect and can be ignored.
Series resistance is the resistance of the semiconductor material, and this low resistance can generally be ignored. The series resistance arises from the contacts and the wire bonds of the photodiode and is used to mainly determine the linearity of the photodiode under zero bias conditions.
Common Operating Circuits
Figure 2: Reverse-Biased Circuit (DET Series Detectors)
The DET series detectors are modeled with the circuit depicted above. The detector is reverse biased to produce a linear response to the applied input light. The amount of photocurrent generated is based upon the incident light and wavelength and can be viewed on an oscilloscope by attaching a load resistance on the output. The function of the RC filter is to filter any high-frequency noise from the input supply that may contribute to a noisy output.
Figure 3: Amplified Detector Circuit
One can also use a photodetector with an amplifier for the purpose of achieving high gain. The user can choose whether to operate in Photovoltaic of Photoconductive modes. There are a few benefits of choosing this active circuit:
- Photovoltaic mode: The circuit is held at zero volts across the photodiode, since point A is held at the same potential as point B by the operational amplifier. This eliminates the possibility of dark current.
- Photoconductive mode: The photodiode is reversed biased, thus improving the bandwidth while lowering the junction capacitance. The gain of the detector is dependent on the feedback element (Rf). The bandwidth of the detector can be calculated using the following:
where GBP is the amplifier gain bandwidth product and CD is the sum of the junction capacitance and amplifier capacitance.
Effects of Chopping Frequency
The photoconductor signal will remain constant up to the time constant response limit. Many detectors, including PbS, PbSe, HgCdTe (MCT), and InAsSb, have a typical 1/f noise spectrum (i.e., the noise decreases as chopping frequency increases), which has a profound impact on the time constant at lower frequencies.
The detector will exhibit lower responsivity at lower chopping frequencies. Frequency response and detectivity are maximized for
The following table lists the photodiodes found on this page, along with the mounted photodiodes and packaged detectors which use the same internal photodiode.
|Click the document icon or Part Number below to view the available support documentation|
|Part Number||Product Description|
| DSD2||:||Dual Band Si/InGaAs Detector, 4 µs Rise Time, 400 - 1700 nm, Ø2.54/Ø1.5 mm|
| FD05D||:||InGaAs Photodiode, 17 ns Rise Time, 800-2600 nm, Ø0.5 mm Active Area|
| FD10D||:||InGaAs Photodiode, 25 ns Rise Time, 800-2600 nm, Ø1.0 mm Active Area|
| FDG03||:||Ge Photodiode, 500 ns Rise Time, 800 - 1800 nm, Ø3 mm Active Area|
| FDG05||:||Ge Photodiode, 800 - 1800 nm, 220 ns Rise Time, Ø5 mm Active Area|
| FDG1010||:||Ge Photodiode, 3.5 µs Rise Time, 800 - 1800 nm, 10 mm x 10 mm Active Area|
| FDG50||:||Ge Photodiode, 450 ns Rise Time, 800 - 1800 nm, Ø5 mm Active Area|
| FDGA05||:||InGaAs Photodiode, 2.5 ns Rise Time, 800-1800 nm, Ø0.5 mm Active Area|
| FDS010||:||Si Photodiode, 1 ns Rise Time, 200 - 1100 nm, Ø1 mm Active Area|
| FDS02||:||Si Photodiode, 47 ps Rise Time, 400 - 1100 nm, Ø0.25 mm Active Area, FC/PC Bulkhead|
|Part Number||Product Description|
| FDS025||:||Si Photodiode, 47 ps Rise Time, 400 - 1100 nm, Ø0.25 mm Active Area|
| FDS100||:||Si Photodiode, 10 ns Rise Time, 350 - 1100 nm, 3.6 mm x 3.6 mm Active Area|
| FDS1010||:||Si Photodiode, 65 ns Rise Time, 400 - 1100 nm, 10 mm x 10 mm Active Area|
| FDS10X10||:||Si Photodiode, 150 ns Rise Time, 340 - 1100 nm, 10 mm x 10 mm Active Area|
| FGA01||:||InGaAs Photodiode, 300 ps Rise Time, 800-1700 nm, Ø0.12 mm Active Area|
| FGA01FC||:||InGaAs Photodiode, 300 ps Rise Time, 800-1700 nm, Ø0.12 mm Active Area, FC/PC Bulkhead|
| FGA10||:||InGaAs Photodiode, 7 ns Rise Time, 800-1800 nm, Ø1 mm Active Area|
| FGA21||:||InGaAs Photodiode, 66 ns Rise Time, 800-1800 nm, Ø2 mm Active Area|
| FGAP71||:||GaP Photodiode, 1 ns Rise Time, 150-550 nm, 2.2 mm × 2.2 mm Active Area|