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UV Enhanced and Protected Aluminum Mirrors


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Optical Coatings Guide
Optic Cleaning Tutorial

Features

  • UV Enhanced Aluminum: Ravg >90% for 250 - 450 nm
  • Protected Aluminum: Ravg > 90% for 450 nm - 2 µm, Ravg > 95% for 2 - 20 µm
  • Surface Flatness: λ/10 (λ/8 for 2" x 2" Squares)
  • Surface Quality: 40-20 Scratch-Dig
  • Round and Square Available as well as 10-Packs of Round Mirrors

UV-Enhanced Aluminum
Our UV-Enhanced Aluminum mirrors are a cost effective solution for UV applications. Because bare aluminum is extremely delicate and susceptible to damage, a protective overcoat is layered over the aluminum to prolong the life of the mirror. Our UV-enhanced coating is made by using an overcoat of MgF2, which offers >90% reflectance from 250 to 450 nm. Please see the Graphs tab for reflectance curves.

Protected Aluminum
Protected Aluminum coated mirrors are a good option for many general broadband applications. An SiO2 coating is used to protect the delicate aluminum coating, making it suitable for laboratory and industrial use. The protected aluminum coating has a smaller chance of tarnishing than protected silver in a high humidity environment, and gives a reflectance that most closely matches the reflectance of a bare aluminum coating. These mirrors have an average reflectances greater than 90% from 450 nm to 2 µm and greater than 95% over the 2 to 20 µm spectral range. Please see the Graphs tab for reflectance curves.

Our Ø19 mm mirrors are specifically designed to fit our Polaris Fixed Optic Mounts for laser system design and other OEM applications. This diameter provides a larger clear aperture than Ø1/2" optics while allowing the mounts to maintain a Ø1" footprint.

Power Handling Limitations Imposed by Optical Fiber
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Undamaged Fiber End
Power Handling Limitations Imposed by Optical Fiber
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Damaged Fiber End

Laser Induced Damage in Optical Fibers

The following tutorial details damage mechanisms in unterminated (bare) and terminated optical fibers, including damage mechanisms at both the air-to-glass interface and within the glass of the optical fiber. Please note that while general rules and scaling relations can be defined, absolute damage thresholds in optical fibers are extremely application dependent and user specific. This tutorial should only be used as a guide to estimate the damage threshold of an optical fiber in a given application. Additionally, all calculations below only apply if all cleaning and use recommendations listed in the last section of this tutorial have been followed. For further discussion about an optical fiber’s power handling abilities within a specific application, contact Thorlabs’ Tech Support.

Damage at the Free Space-to-Fiber Interface

There are several potential damage mechanisms that can occur at the free space-to-fiber interface when coupling light into a fiber. These come into play whether the fiber is used bare or terminated in a connector.

Silica Optical Fiber Maximum Power Densities
TypeTheoretical Damage ThresholdPractical Safe Value
CW
(Average Power)
1 MW/cm2250 kW/cm2
10 ns Pulsed
(Peak Power)
5 GW/cm21 GW/cm2

Unterminated (Bare) Fiber
Damage mechanisms in bare optical fiber can be modeled similarly to bulk optics, and industry-standard damage thresholds for UV Fused Silica substrates can be applied to silica-based fiber (refer to the table to the right). The surface areas and beam diameters involved at the air-to-glass interface are extremely small compared to bulk optics, especially with single mode (SM) fiber, resulting in very small damage thresholds.

The effective area for SM fiber is defined by the mode field diameter (MFD), which is the effective cross-sectional area through which light propagates in the fiber. A free-space beam of light must be focused down to a spot of roughly 80% of this diameter to be coupled into the fiber with good efficiency. MFD increases roughly linearly with wavelength, which yields a roughly quadratic increase in damage threshold with wavelength. Additionally, a beam coupled into SM fiber typically has a Gaussian-like profile, resulting in a higher power density at the center of the beam compared with the edges, so a safety margin must be built into the calculated damage threshold value if the calculations assume a uniform density.

Multimode (MM) fiber’s effective area is defined by the core diameter, which is typically far larger than the MFD in SM fiber. Kilowatts of power can be typically coupled into multimode fiber without damage, due to the larger core size and the resulting reduced power density.

It is typically uncommon to use single mode fibers for pulsed applications with high per-pulse powers because the beam needs to be focused down to a very small area for coupling, resulting in a very high power density. It is also uncommon to use SM fiber with ultraviolet light because the MFD becomes extremely small; thus, power handling becomes very low, and coupling becomes very difficult.

Example Calculation
For SM400 single mode fiber operating at 400 nm with CW light, the mode field diameter (MFD) is approximately Ø3 µm. For good coupling efficiency, 80% of the MFD is typically filled with light. This yields an effective diameter of Ø2.4 µm and an effective area of 4.52 µm2:

Area = πr2 = π(MFD/2)2 = π • 1.22 µm2 = 4.52 µm2

This can be extrapolated to a damage threshold of 11.3 mW. We recommend using the "practical value" maximum power density from the table above to account for a Gaussian power distribution, possible coupling misalignment, and contaminants or imperfections on the fiber end face:

250 kW/cm2 = 2.5 mW/µm2

4.25 µm2 • 2.5 mW/µm2 = 11.3 mW

Terminated Fiber
Optical fiber that is terminated in a connector has additional power handling considerations. Fiber is typically terminated by being epoxied into a ceramic or steel ferrule, which forms the interfacing surface of the connector. When light is coupled into the fiber, light that does not enter the core and propagate down the fiber is scattered into the outer layers of the fiber, inside the ferrule.

The scattered light propagates into the epoxy that holds the fiber in the ferrule. If the light is intense enough, it can melt the epoxy, causing it to run onto the face of the connector and into the beam path. The epoxy can be burned off, leaving residue on the end of the fiber, which reduces coupling efficiency and increases scattering, causing further damage. The lack of epoxy between the fiber and ferrule can also cause the fiber to be decentered, which reduces the coupling efficiency and further increases scattering and damage.

The power handling of terminated optical fiber scales with wavelength for two reasons. First, the higher per photon energy of short-wavelength light leads to a greater likelihood of scattering, which increases the optical power incident on the epoxy near the end of the connector. Second, shorter-wavelength light is inherently more difficult to couple into SM fiber due to the smaller MFD, as discussed above. The greater likelihood of light not entering the fiber’s core again increases the chance of damaging scattering effects. This second effect is not as common with MM fibers because their larger core sizes allow easier coupling in general, including with short-wavelength light.

Fiber connectors can be constructed to have an epoxy-free air gap between the optical fiber and ferrule near the fiber end face. This design feature, commonly used with multimode fiber, allows some of the connector-related damage mechanisms to be avoided. Our high-power multimode fiber patch cables use connectors with this design feature.

Combined Damage Thresholds
As a general guideline, for short-wavelength light at around 400 nm, scattering within connectors typically limits the power handling of optical fiber to about 300 mW. Note that this limit is higher than the limit set by the optical power density at the fiber tip. However, power handing limitations due to connector effects do not diminish as rapidly with wavelength when compared to power density effects. Thus, a terminated fiber’s power handling is "connector-limited" at wavelengths above approximately 600 nm and is "fiber-limited" at lower wavelengths.

The graph to the right shows the power handling limitations imposed by the fiber itself and a surrounding connector. The total power handling of a terminated fiber at a given wavelength is limited by the lower of the two limitations at that wavelength. The fiber-limited (blue) line is for SM fibers. An equivalent line for multimode fiber would be far above the SM line on the Y-axis. For terminated multimode fibers, the connector-limited (red) line always determines the damage threshold.

Please note that the values in this graph are rough guidelines detailing estimates of power levels where damage is very unlikely with proper handling and alignment procedures. It is worth noting that optical fibers are frequently used at power levels above those described here. However, damage is likely in these applications. The optical fiber should be considered a consumable lab supply if used at power levels above those recommended by Thorlabs.

Damage Within Optical Fibers

In addition to damage mechanisms at the air-to-glass interface, optical fibers also display power handling limitations due to damage mechanisms within the optical fiber itself. Two categories of damage within the fiber are damage from bend losses and damage from photodarkening.

Bend Losses
Bend losses occur when a fiber is bent to a point where light traveling in the core is incident on the core/cladding interface at an angle higher than the critical angle, making total internal reflection impossible.Under these circumstances, light escapes the fiber, often in one localized area. The light escaping the fiber typically has a high power density, which can cause burns to the fiber as well as any surrounding furcation tubing.

A special category of optical fiber, called double-clad fiber, can reduce the risk of bend-loss damage by allowing the fiber’s cladding (2nd layer) to also function as a waveguide in addition to the core. By making the critical angle of the cladding/coating interface higher than the critical angle of the core/clad interface, light that escapes the core is loosely confined within the cladding. It will then leak out over a distance of centimeters or meters instead of at one localized spot within the fiber, minimizing damage. Thorlabs manufactures and sells 0.22 NA double-clad multimode fiber, which boasts very high, megawatt range power handling.

Photodarkening
A second damage mechanism within optical fiber, called photodarkening or solarization, typically occurs over time in fibers used with ultraviolet or short-wavelength visible light. The pure silica core of standard multimode optical fiber can transmit ultraviolet light, but the attenuation at these short wavelengths increases with the time exposed to the light. The mechanism that causes photodarkening is largely unknown, but several strategies have been developed to combat it. Fibers with a very low hydroxyl ion (OH) content have been found to resist photodarkening. Other dopants, including fluorine, can also reduce photodarkening.

Germanium-doped silica, which is commonly used for the core of single mode fiber for red or IR wavelengths, can experience photodarkening with blue visible light. Thus, pure silica core single mode fibers are typically used with short wavelength visible light. Single mode fibers are typically not used with UV light due to the small MFD at these wavelengths, which makes coupling extremely difficult.

Even with the above strategies in place, all fibers eventually experience photodarkening when used with UV light, and thus, fibers used with these wavelengths should be considered consumables.

Tips for Maximizing an Optical Fiber's Power Handling Capability

With a clear understanding of the power-limiting mechanisms of an optical fiber, strategies can be implemented to increase a fiber’s power handling capability and reduce the risk of damage in a given application. All of the calculations above only apply if the following strategies are implemented.

One of the most important aspects of a fiber’s power-handling capability is the quality of the end face. The end face should be clean and clear of dirt and other contaminants that can cause scattering of coupled light. Additionally, if working with bare fiber, the end of the fiber should have a good quality cleave, and any splices should be of good quality to prevent scattering at interfaces.

The alignment process for coupling light into optical fiber is also important to avoid damage to the fiber. During alignment, before optimum coupling is achieved, light may be easily focused onto parts of the fiber other than the core. If a high power beam is focused on the cladding or other parts of the fiber, scattering can occur, causing damage.

Additionally, terminated fibers should not be plugged in or unplugged while the light source is on, again so that focused beams of light are not incident on fragile parts of the connector, possibly causing damage.

Bend losses, discussed above, can cause localized burning in an optical fiber when a large amount of light escapes the fiber in a small area. Fibers carrying large amounts of light should be secured to a steady surface along their entire length to avoid being disturbed or bent.

Additionally, choosing an appropriate optical fiber for a given application can help to avoid damage. Large-mode-area fibers are a good alternative to standard single mode fibers in high-power applications. They provide good beam quality with a larger MFD, thereby decreasing power densities. Standard single mode fibers are also not generally used for ultraviolet applications or high-peak-power pulsed applications due to the high spatial power densities these applications present.

The shaded regions in the graphs denote the ranges over which we guarantee the specified reflectance. Please note that the reflectance outside of these bands is typical and can vary from lot to lot, especially in out-of-band regions where the reflectance is fluctuating or sloped.

UV-Enhanced Aluminum Coating (250 - 450 nm)

UV-Enhanced Aluminum at Near-Normal Incident Angle
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Excel Spreadsheet with Raw Data for UV-Enhanced Aluminum
UV-Enhanced Aluminum at 45 Degree Incident Angle
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Excel Spreadsheet with Raw Data for UV-Enhanced Aluminum
UV-Enhanced Aluminum at Near-Normal Incident Angle
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Excel Spreadsheet with Raw Data for UV-Enhanced Aluminum
UV-Enhanced Aluminum at 45 Degree Incident Angle
Click to Enlarge

Excel Spreadsheet with Raw Data for UV-Enhanced Aluminum

 

Protected Aluminum Coating (450 nm - 20 µm)

Protected Aluminum at Near-Normal Incident Angle
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Excel Spreadsheet with Raw Data for Protected Aluminum
Protected Aluminum at 45 Degree Incident Angle
Click to Enlarge

Excel Spreadsheet with Raw Data for Protected Aluminum
Damage Threshold Specifications
Coating Designation
(Item # Suffix)
Damage Threshold
-F01 (Pulse)0.3 J/cm2 at 355 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz, Ø0.381 mm
-F01 (CW)a300 W/cm at 1.064 µm, Ø0.044 mm
500 W/cm at 10.6 µm, Ø0.339 mm
-G01 (Pulse)0.3 J/cm2 at 1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz, Ø1.000 mm
-G01 (CW)a60 W/cm at 1.064 µm, Ø0.044 mm
350 W/cm at 10.6 µm, Ø0.339 mm
  • The power density of your beam should be calculated in terms of W/cm. For an explanation of why the linear power density provides the best metric for long pulse and CW sources, please see the "Continuous Wave and Long-Pulse Lasers" section below.

Damage Threshold Data for Thorlabs' UV Enhanced and Protected Aluminum Mirrors

The specifications to the right are measured data for Thorlabs' UV enhanced and protected aluminum mirrors. Damage threshold specifications are constant for a given coating type, regardless of the size or shape of the mirror.

 

Laser Induced Damage Threshold Tutorial

This following is a general overview of how laser induced damage thresholds are measured and how the values may be utilized in determining the appropriateness of an optic for a given application. When choosing optics, it is important to understand the Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) of the optics being used. The LIDT for an optic greatly depends on the type of laser you are using. Continuous wave (CW) lasers typically cause damage from thermal effects (absorption either in the coating or in the substrate). Pulsed lasers, on the other hand, often strip electrons from the lattice structure of an optic before causing thermal damage. Note that the guideline presented here assumes room temperature operation and optics in new condition (i.e., within scratch-dig spec, surface free of contamination, etc.). Because dust or other particles on the surface of an optic can cause damage at lower thresholds, we recommend keeping surfaces clean and free of debris. For more information on cleaning optics, please see our Optics Cleaning tutorial.

Testing Method

Thorlabs' LIDT testing is done in compliance with ISO/DIS11254 specifications. A standard 1-on-1 testing regime is performed to test the damage threshold.

First, a low-power/energy beam is directed to the optic under test. The optic is exposed in 10 locations to this laser beam for a set duration of time (CW) or number of pulses (prf specified). After exposure, the optic is examined by a microscope (~100X magnification) for any visible damage. The number of locations that are damaged at a particular power/energy level is recorded. Next, the power/energy is either increased or decreased and the optic is exposed at 10 new locations. This process is repeated until damage is observed. The damage threshold is then assigned to be the highest power/energy that the optic can withstand without causing damage. A histogram such as that below represents the testing of one BB1-E02 mirror.

LIDT metallic mirror
The photograph above is a protected aluminum-coated mirror after LIDT testing. In this particular test, it handled 0.43 J/cm2 (1064 nm, 10 ns pulse, 10 Hz, Ø1.000 mm) before damage.
LIDT BB1-E02
Example Test Data
Fluence# of Tested LocationsLocations with DamageLocations Without Damage
1.50 J/cm210010
1.75 J/cm210010
2.00 J/cm210010
2.25 J/cm21019
3.00 J/cm21019
5.00 J/cm21091

According to the test, the damage threshold of the mirror was 2.00 J/cm2 (532 nm, 10 ns pulse, 10 Hz, Ø0.803 mm). Please keep in mind that it is only representative of one coating run and that Thorlabs' specified damage thresholds account for coating variances.

Continuous Wave and Long-Pulse Lasers

When an optic is damaged by a continuous wave (CW) laser, it is usually due to the melting of the surface as a result of absorbing the laser's energy or damage to the optical coating (antireflection) [1]. Pulsed lasers with pulse lengths longer than 1 µs can be treated as CW lasers for LIDT discussions. Additionally, when pulse lengths are between 1 ns and 1 µs, LIDT can occur either because of absorption or a dielectric breakdown (must check both CW and pulsed LIDT). Absorption is either due to an intrinsic property of the optic or due to surface irregularities; thus LIDT values are only valid for optics meeting or exceeding the surface quality specifications given by a manufacturer. While many optics can handle high power CW lasers, cemented (e.g., achromatic doublets) or highly absorptive (e.g., ND filters) optics tend to have lower CW damage thresholds. These lower thresholds are due to absorption or scattering in the cement or metal coating.

Linear Power Density Scaling

LIDT in linear power density vs. pulse length and spot size. For long pulses to CW, linear power density becomes a constant with spot size. This graph was obtained from [1].

Intensity Distribution

Pulsed lasers with high pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) may behave similarly to CW beams. Unfortunately, this is highly dependent on factors such as absorption and thermal diffusivity, so there is no reliable method for determining when a high PRF laser will damage an optic due to thermal effects. For beams with a large PRF both the average and peak powers must be compared to the equivalent CW power. Additionally, for highly transparent materials, there is little to no drop in the LIDT with increasing PRF.

In order to use the specified CW damage threshold of an optic, it is necessary to know the following:

  1. Wavelength of your laser
  2. Linear power density of your beam (total power divided by 1/e2 spot size)
  3. Beam diameter of your beam (1/e2)
  4. Approximate intensity profile of your beam (e.g., Gaussian)

The power density of your beam should be calculated in terms of W/cm. The graph to the right shows why the linear power density provides the best metric for long pulse and CW sources. Under these conditions, linear power density scales independently of spot size; one does not need to compute an adjusted LIDT to adjust for changes in spot size. This calculation assumes a uniform beam intensity profile. You must now consider hotspots in the beam or other nonuniform intensity profiles and roughly calculate a maximum power density. For reference, a Gaussian beam typically has a maximum power density that is twice that of the uniform beam (see lower right).

Now compare the maximum power density to that which is specified as the LIDT for the optic. If the optic was tested at a wavelength other than your operating wavelength, the damage threshold must be scaled appropriately. A good rule of thumb is that the damage threshold has a linear relationship with wavelength such that as you move to shorter wavelengths, the damage threshold decreases (i.e., a LIDT of 10 W/cm at 1310 nm scales to 5 W/cm at 655 nm). While this rule of thumb provides a general trend, it is not a quantitative analysis of LIDT vs wavelength. In CW applications, for instance, damage scales more strongly with absorption in the coating and substrate, which does not necessarily scale well with wavelength. While the above procedure provides a good rule of thumb for LIDT values, please contact Tech Support if your wavelength is different from the specified LIDT wavelength. If your power density is less than the adjusted LIDT of the optic, then the optic should work for your application.

Please note that we have a buffer built in between the specified damage thresholds online and the tests which we have done, which accommodates variation between batches. Upon request, we can provide individual test information and a testing certificate. The damage analysis will be carried out on a similar optic (customer's optic will not be damaged). Testing may result in additional costs or lead times. Contact Tech Support for more information.

Pulsed Lasers

As previously stated, pulsed lasers typically induce a different type of damage to the optic than CW lasers. Pulsed lasers often do not heat the optic enough to damage it; instead, pulsed lasers produce strong electric fields capable of inducing dielectric breakdown in the material. Unfortunately, it can be very difficult to compare the LIDT specification of an optic to your laser. There are multiple regimes in which a pulsed laser can damage an optic and this is based on the laser's pulse length. The highlighted columns in the table below outline the pulse lengths that our specified LIDT values are relevant for.

Pulses shorter than 10-9 s cannot be compared to our specified LIDT values with much reliability. In this ultra-short-pulse regime various mechanics, such as multiphoton-avalanche ionization, take over as the predominate damage mechanism [2]. In contrast, pulses between 10-7 s and 10-4 s may cause damage to an optic either because of dielectric breakdown or thermal effects. This means that both CW and pulsed damage thresholds must be compared to the laser beam to determine whether the optic is suitable for your application.

Pulse Durationt < 10-9 s10-9 < t < 10-7 s10-7 < t < 10-4 st > 10-4 s
Damage MechanismAvalanche IonizationDielectric BreakdownDielectric Breakdown or ThermalThermal
Relevant Damage SpecificationN/APulsedPulsed and CWCW

When comparing an LIDT specified for a pulsed laser to your laser, it is essential to know the following:

Energy Density Scaling

LIDT in energy density vs. pulse length and spot size. For short pulses, energy density becomes a constant with spot size. This graph was obtained from [1].

  1. Wavelength of your laser
  2. Energy density of your beam (total energy divided by 1/e2 area)
  3. Pulse length of your laser
  4. Pulse repetition frequency (prf) of your laser
  5. Beam diameter of your laser (1/e2 )
  6. Approximate intensity profile of your beam (e.g., Gaussian)

The energy density of your beam should be calculated in terms of J/cm2. The graph to the right shows why the energy density provides the best metric for short pulse sources. Under these conditions, energy density scales independently of spot size, one does not need to compute an adjusted LIDT to adjust for changes in spot size. This calculation assumes a uniform beam intensity profile. You must now adjust this energy density to account for hotspots or other nonuniform intensity profiles and roughly calculate a maximum energy density. For reference a Gaussian beam typically has a maximum power density that is twice that of the 1/e2 beam.

Now compare the maximum energy density to that which is specified as the LIDT for the optic. If the optic was tested at a wavelength other than your operating wavelength, the damage threshold must be scaled appropriately [3]. A good rule of thumb is that the damage threshold has an inverse square root relationship with wavelength such that as you move to shorter wavelengths, the damage threshold decreases (i.e., a LIDT of 1 J/cm2 at 1064 nm scales to 0.7 J/cm2 at 532 nm):

Pulse Wavelength Scaling

You now have a wavelength-adjusted energy density, which you will use in the following step.

Beam diameter is also important to know when comparing damage thresholds. While the LIDT, when expressed in units of J/cm2, scales independently of spot size; large beam sizes are more likely to illuminate a larger number of defects which can lead to greater variances in the LIDT [4]. For data presented here, a <1 mm beam size was used to measure the LIDT. For beams sizes greater than 5 mm, the LIDT (J/cm2) will not scale independently of beam diameter due to the larger size beam exposing more defects.

The pulse length must now be compensated for. The longer the pulse duration, the more energy the optic can handle. For pulse widths between 1 - 100 ns, an approximation is as follows:

Pulse Length Scaling

Use this formula to calculate the Adjusted LIDT for an optic based on your pulse length. If your maximum energy density is less than this adjusted LIDT maximum energy density, then the optic should be suitable for your application. Keep in mind that this calculation is only used for pulses between 10-9 s and 10-7 s. For pulses between 10-7 s and 10-4 s, the CW LIDT must also be checked before deeming the optic appropriate for your application.

Please note that we have a buffer built in between the specified damage thresholds online and the tests which we have done, which accommodates variation between batches. Upon request, we can provide individual test information and a testing certificate. Contact Tech Support for more information.


[1] R. M. Wood, Optics and Laser Tech. 29, 517 (1997).
[2] Roger M. Wood, Laser-Induced Damage of Optical Materials (Institute of Physics Publishing, Philadelphia, PA, 2003).
[3] C. W. Carr et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 127402 (2003).
[4] N. Bloembergen, Appl. Opt. 12, 661 (1973).

Click the Support Documentation icon document icon or Part Number below to view the available support documentation
Part Number Product Description
PF05-03-F01 Support Documentation PF05-03-F01 : Ø1/2" (12.7 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
PF05-03-G01 Support Documentation PF05-03-G01 : Ø1/2" (12.7 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
PF05-03-G01-10 Support Documentation PF05-03-G01-10 : 10 Pack of Protected Aluminum Mirrors, Ø1/2" (12.7 mm)
PF07-03-F01 Support Documentation PF07-03-F01 : Ø19.0 mm UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
PF07-03-G01 Support Documentation PF07-03-G01 : Ø19.0 mm Protected Aluminum Mirror
PF10-03-F01 Support Documentation PF10-03-F01 : Ø1" (25.4 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
PF10-03-F01-10 Support Documentation PF10-03-F01-10 : 10 Pack of UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirrors, Ø1" (25.4 mm)
PF10-03-G01 Support Documentation PF10-03-G01 : Ø1" (25.4 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
PF10-03-G01-10 Support Documentation PF10-03-G01-10 : 10 Pack of Protected Aluminum Mirrors, Ø1" (25.4 mm)
Part Number Product Description
PF20-03-F01 Support Documentation PF20-03-F01 : Ø2" (50.8 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
PF20-03-G01 Support Documentation PF20-03-G01 : Ø2" (50.8 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
PFSQ05-03-F01 Support Documentation PFSQ05-03-F01 : 1/2" x 1/2" (12.7 x 12.7 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
PFSQ05-03-G01 Support Documentation PFSQ05-03-G01 : 1/2" x 1/2" (12.7 x 12.7 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
PFSQ10-03-F01 Support Documentation PFSQ10-03-F01 : 1" x 1" (25.4 x 25.4 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
PFSQ10-03-G01 Support Documentation PFSQ10-03-G01 : 1" x 1" (25.4 x 25.4 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
PFSQ20-03-F01 Support Documentation PFSQ20-03-F01 : 2" x 2" (50.8 x 50.8 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
PFSQ20-03-G01 Support Documentation PFSQ20-03-G01 : 2" x 2" (50.8 x 50.8 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror

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Posted Comments:
Poster: john.christie
Posted Date: 2014-09-14 19:58:27.167
The reflection data accessible from the UV Enhanced and Protected Aluminum Mirrors page stop at 220 nm. However your responses to earlier inquiries indicates that you have some data for shorter wavelengths. Can we see any such data please?
Poster: cdaly
Posted Date: 2014-06-03 04:29:50.0
Response from Chris at Thorlabs: Thank you for your inquiry. I'm afraid we do not have the capability to measure the reflectivity below 185 nm due to the equipment necessary. The aluminum should have some reflectivity in this range, but unfortunately, we cannot specify a percentage.
Poster: wise.adam.jay
Posted Date: 2014-05-27 14:11:31.963
Any idea on reflectivity from 120nm-200nm?
Poster: jlow
Posted Date: 2013-09-18 14:18:00.0
Response from Jeremy at Thorlabs: We could take some scans for the mirror at higher AOI. The maximum that we can measure is around 68° AOI at the moment. We will contact you directly to provide the scans.
Poster: jeffchou
Posted Date: 2013-09-17 11:03:09.873
Is it possible to obtain reflection measurement data of the protected aluminum mirrors at higher angles (>45 deg)? I am running some experiments at high incident angles, from 0deg to 80deg at 10 deg increments. It would be very helpful if I could get the mirror reflection data at these angles as well. Thanks! Jeff
Poster: cdaly
Posted Date: 2013-07-24 15:54:00.0
Response from Chris at Thorlabs: Thank you for your feedback. The thickness of the silicon oxide layer can vary from mirror to mirror. It is typically very thin, but I'm afraid this is information that is considered proprietary so I will have to contact you directly to discuss the issue.
Poster: g.mcconnell
Posted Date: 2013-07-24 14:57:16.043
What is the thickness of the silicon oxide coating on the PF10-03-G01 mirror?
Poster: bdada
Posted Date: 2011-12-15 17:52:00.0
Response from Buki at Thorlabs: Thank you for your feedback. We measure the reflectivity at 8 degrees becasue it is the smallest angle at which we can make the measurement. However, we do not expect the reflectivity to change from 0 degrees to 8 degrees. Please contact TechSupport@thorlabs.com if you have further questions.
Poster: thomas.connolley
Posted Date: 2011-12-14 18:00:26.0
There may be a labelling error in your Excel spreadsheet of reflectance data for UV-Enhanced Al mirrors. The Label says FO1 8 deg AOI Refleactance Should this be zero degree?
Poster: bdada
Posted Date: 2011-10-25 23:55:00.0
Response from Buki at Thorlabs: Thank you for using our Web Feedback tool. As a guideline, please use 200W/cm^2 for a 1mm diameter beam at 1064nm. Please contact TechSupport@thorlabs.com if you have further questions.
Poster: luis.dussan
Posted Date: 2011-10-20 09:10:35.0
What is the CW damage threshold for protected and enhanced aluminum coatings at 1550nm please?
Poster: lmorgus
Posted Date: 2011-08-11 13:35:00.0
Response from Laurie at Thorlabs to skovale: Thank you for your interest in concave mirrors. Thorlabs does provide a line of concave mirrors although our stocked surface flatness spec is lambda/4 instead of lambda/10. They can be found by clicking on the first "related products" link at the top of this page or directly via this URL: http://www.thorlabs.de/NewGroupPage9.cfm?ObjectGroup_ID=1161. We currently offer 1" versions with f = 100. Larger diameter versions (2 and 3 inch) have longer focal length options up to 500 mm in stock. Depending on your setup, these may be suitable. Incidentally, we are also about to release versions of these with a UV Enhanced Aluminum Coating or one of our dielectric coatings. Should these not be suitable for your application, we can quote a custom 1/2" or 1" with the tighter surface flatness value and higher focal lengths. We will contact you directly to learn more about your needs.
Poster: skovale
Posted Date: 2011-08-11 19:08:53.0
There is a big need in concave, 1 inch and 1/2 inch diameter, mirrors (lambda/10) for focusing laser pulses with focal lengths in the range 100-1000 mm, say f=100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 800, 1000 mm. I myself and many customers will bye such mirrors. Bests, Sergey Kovalenko
Poster: jjurado
Posted Date: 2011-07-18 14:16:00.0
Response from Javier at Thorlabs to jliu: The reflectivity of our UV enhanced aluminum G01 coating at 45 degree angle of incidence and 325 nm is ~82% (unpolarized light). We can also offer custom sizes. I will contact you directly for further assistance.
Poster: jliu
Posted Date: 2011-07-15 17:08:01.0
I need by one mirror for laser reflection to make grating. The wavelength is 325nm. I did not find the spec about the reflectivity around 45 degree on wavelength at 325nm. The size I request is 60mm x 100mm x 18mm. Looking forward to getting help from you as soon as possible. Thanks a lot. Julius Inphenix 925-606-8809 ext 8041
Poster: jjurado
Posted Date: 2011-07-07 15:28:00.0
Response from Javier at Thorlabs to john.kirtley: Thank you very much for contacting us. We are currently working on generating some data for the temperature tolerance of our protected metal coated mirrors. We will contact you with this information directly once we have the results.
Poster: john.kirtley
Posted Date: 2011-06-29 09:14:25.0
Hi,I recently bought two UV enhanced mirrors for a high temperature application. Do you by chance have data on the tolerable ambient temperature range of these mirrors? Thanks, John
Poster: bdada
Posted Date: 2011-06-13 20:02:00.0
Response from Buki at Thorlabs: Thank you for your feedback. We find your comment very useful in making sure that our products are presented well. The graphs online at 0 degrees AOI shows reflection down to 200nm. We will be updating the graph for the 45 degrees AOI shortly to show reflection down to 210nm. This reflectivity data from 210nm to 1000nm is available to download online on the product page of Aluminum Mirrors. http://www.thorlabs.com/NewGroupPage9.cfm?ObjectGroup_ID=264 Please contact TechSupport@thorlabs.com if you have further questions.
Poster: ftalbot
Posted Date: 2011-06-07 18:02:15.0
The reflectance curves you display cover 350nm-1000nm... This encompasses mostly the visible (~60% of that range), the near IR (~30% of that range) and some UV (barely half the UVB range and ~10% of your displayed range). From these curves, I really do not see how you can have the nerve to call that mirror a "UV enhanced Aluminum mirror"!!!!!! Is that a joke? If you want to sell us UV mirrors, SHOW US THE UV REFLECTIVITIES !!!!
Poster: Thorlabs
Posted Date: 2010-07-29 14:24:14.0
Response from Javier at Thorlabs to Xavier: Thank you for your feedback. Unfortunately, we do not have damage threshold information for our metallic mirrors at or near this wavelength. However, as a guideline, we specify ~50W/cm^2 for CW light at 1064 nm. AT 253nm, this value is expected to be much lower, generally by a factor equal to the ratio of the two wavelengths (4.20, ~11 W/cm^2). This is higher than your operating power density, but there are other factors such as UV absorption, and cleanliness of the mirror which can affect the overall performance. I will contact you directly to discuss your application.
Poster: xavier.fain
Posted Date: 2010-07-28 16:57:49.0
Hello, I have been using the PF10-03-F01 Al mirror with a 253n laser beam. beam power is ~ 1.7W/cm2, and I observe some damage on the mirror surface. Could you provide a Damage Threshold for the PF10-03-F01 Al mirror ? Could you recommend a similar mirror which could work with high power beam? Thanks Xavier
Poster: Tyler
Posted Date: 2008-12-26 08:50:18.0
A response from Tyler at Thorlabs to Etay: The aluminum mirrors that you are inquiring about have a flat face (infinite radius of curvature). The flatness of the face is specified as lambda/10 at 633 nm. This corresponds to a maximum variation in the surface of 63.3 nm. If we assume that the center of the mirror is the highest point and the edge of the mirror is the lowest point, then for a 1? mirror the lower limit on the radius of curvature would be approximately 2500 meters.
Poster: lavert
Posted Date: 2008-12-24 05:41:04.0
Hello, I have this mirror and would very like to know th curvature radii of it Regards, Etay
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Round UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirrors

Item # PF05-03-F01PF07-03-F01 PF10-03-F01 PF20-03-F01
Diameter 1/2" (12.7 mm) 19.0 mm 1" (25.4 mm) 2" (50.8 mm)
Diameter Tolerance +0.0 mm / -0.1 mm
Thickness 6.0 mm (0.236") 6.0 mm (0.236") 6.0 mm (0.236") 12.0 mm (0.472")
Thickness Tolerance ±0.2 mm
Reflectance Ravg >90% from 250 to 450 nm
Substrate Fused Silica
Flatness λ/10 @ 633 nm
Parallelism <3 arcmin
Clear Aperture >90% of Diameter
Damage Threshold (Pulsed) 0.3 J/cm2 at 355 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz, Ø0.381 mm
Damage Threshold (CW)a 300 W/cm at 1.064 µm, Ø0.044 mm
500 W/cm at 10.6 µm, Ø0.339 mm
  • The power density of your beam should be calculated in terms of W/cm. For an explanation of why the linear power density provides the best metric for long pulse and CW sources, please see the Damage Thresholds tab.
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal/Imperial Price Available / Ships
PF05-03-F01 Support Documentation
PF05-03-F01 Ø1/2" (12.7 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
$30.60
Today
PF07-03-F01 Support Documentation
PF07-03-F01 NEW! Ø19.0 mm UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
$44.00
Today
PF10-03-F01 Support Documentation
PF10-03-F01 Ø1" (25.4 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
$50.00
Today
PF20-03-F01 Support Documentation
PF20-03-F01 Ø2" (50.8 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
$94.80
Today
PF10-03-F01-10 Support Documentation
PF10-03-F01-10 10 Pack of UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirrors, Ø1" (25.4 mm)
$432.10
Today

Square UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirrors

Item #PFSQ05-03-F01PFSQ10-03-F01PFSQ20-03-F01
Face Dimensions 1/2" x 1/2" (12.7 x 12.7 mm) 1" x 1" (25.4 x 25.4 mm) 2" x 2" (50.8 x 50.8 mm)
Face Dimensions Tolerance +0.0 mm / -0.1 mm
Thickness 6.0 mm (0.24")
Thickness Tolerance ±0.2 mm
Reflectance Ravg >90% from 250 - 450 nm
Substrate UV Fused Silica
Flatness λ/10 @ 633 nm λ/8 @ 633 nm
Parallelism <3 arcmin
Clear Aperture >90% of Dimension
Damage Threshold (Pulsed) 0.3 J/cm2 at 355 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz, Ø0.381 mm
Damage Threshold (CW)a 300 W/cm at 1.064 µm, Ø0.044 mm
500 W/cm at 10.6 µm, Ø0.339 mm
  • The power density of your beam should be calculated in terms of W/cm. For an explanation of why the linear power density provides the best metric for long pulse and CW sources, please see the Damage Thresholds tab.
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal/Imperial Price Available / Ships
PFSQ05-03-F01 Support Documentation
PFSQ05-03-F01 1/2" x 1/2" (12.7 x 12.7 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
$30.60
Today
PFSQ10-03-F01 Support Documentation
PFSQ10-03-F01 1" x 1" (25.4 x 25.4 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
$45.00
Today
PFSQ20-03-F01 Support Documentation
PFSQ20-03-F01 2" x 2" (50.8 x 50.8 mm) UV Enhanced Aluminum Mirror
$111.00
Today

Round Protected Aluminum Mirrors

Item # PF05-03-G01 PF07-03-G01 PF10-03-G01 PF20-03-G01
Diameter 1/2" (12.7 mm) 19.0 mm 1" (25.4 mm) 2" (50.8 mm)
Diameter Tolerance +0.0 mm / -0.1 mm
Thickness 6.0 mm (0.236") 6.0 mm (0.236") 6.0 mm (0.236") 12.0 mm (0.472")
Thickness Tolerance ±0.2 mm
Reflectance Ravg >90% from 450 nm - 2 µm
Ravg >95% from 2 - 20 µm
Substrate Fused Silica
Flatness λ/10 @ 633 nm
Parallelism <3 arcmin
Clear Aperture >90% of Diameter
Damage Threshold (Pulsed) 0.3 J/cm2 at 1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz, Ø1.000 mm
Damage Threshold (CW)a 60 W/cm at 1.064 µm, Ø0.044 mm
350 W/cm at 10.6 µm, Ø0.339 mm
  • The power density of your beam should be calculated in terms of W/cm. For an explanation of why the linear power density provides the best metric for long pulse and CW sources, please see the Damage Thresholds tab.
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal/Imperial Price Available / Ships
PF05-03-G01 Support Documentation
PF05-03-G01 Ø1/2" (12.7 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
$32.60
Today
PF07-03-G01 Support Documentation
PF07-03-G01 NEW! Ø19.0 mm Protected Aluminum Mirror
$44.00
Today
PF10-03-G01 Support Documentation
PF10-03-G01 Ø1" (25.4 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
$50.00
Today
PF20-03-G01 Support Documentation
PF20-03-G01 Ø2" (50.8 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
$95.90
Today
PF05-03-G01-10 Support Documentation
PF05-03-G01-10 10 Pack of Protected Aluminum Mirrors, Ø1/2" (12.7 mm)
$285.40
Today
PF10-03-G01-10 Support Documentation
PF10-03-G01-10 10 Pack of Protected Aluminum Mirrors, Ø1" (25.4 mm)
$432.10
Today

Square Protected Aluminum Mirrors

Item #PFSQ05-03-G01PFSQ10-03-G01PFSQ20-03-G01
Face Dimensions 1/2" x 1/2" (12.7 x 12.7 mm) 1" x 1" (25.4 x 25.4 mm) 2" x 2" (50.8 x 50.8 mm)
Face Dimensions Tolerance +0.0 mm / -0.1 mm
Thickness 6.0 mm (0.24")
Thickness Tolerance ±0.2 mm
Reflectance Ravg >90% from 450 nm - 2 µm
Ravg >95% from 2 - 20 µm
Substrate UV Fused Silica
Flatness λ/10 @ 633 nm λ/8 @ 633 nm
Parallelism <3 arcmin
Clear Aperture >90% of Dimension
Damage Threshold (Pulse) 0.3 J/cm2 at 1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz, Ø1.000 mm
Damage Threshold (CW)a 60 W/cm at 1.064 µm, Ø0.044 mm
350 W/cm at 10.6 µm, Ø0.339 mm
  • The power density of your beam should be calculated in terms of W/cm. For an explanation of why the linear power density provides the best metric for long pulse and CW sources, please see the Damage Thresholds tab.
Based on your currency / country selection, your order will ship from Newton, New Jersey  
+1 Qty Docs Part Number - Universal/Imperial Price Available / Ships
PFSQ05-03-G01 Support Documentation
PFSQ05-03-G01 1/2" x 1/2" (12.7 x 12.7 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
$32.60
Today
PFSQ10-03-G01 Support Documentation
PFSQ10-03-G01 1" x 1" (25.4 x 25.4 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
$48.90
Today
PFSQ20-03-G01 Support Documentation
PFSQ20-03-G01 2" x 2" (50.8 x 50.8 mm) Protected Aluminum Mirror
$111.00
Today
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